IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Resettlement Stressors for Women of Refugee Background Resettled in Regional Australia


  • Clare Hawkes

    (School of Health and Human Sciences, Casuarina Campus, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810, Australia)

  • Kimberley Norris

    (School of Psychological Sciences, Sandy Bay Campus, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia)

  • Janine Joyce

    (School of Health and Human Sciences, Casuarina Campus, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810, Australia)

  • Douglas Paton

    (School of Health and Human Sciences, Casuarina Campus, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0810, Australia)


Women of Refugee Background (WoRB) have been repeatedly identified as an extremely vulnerable population. Within an Australian context, WoRB are increasingly resettled to non-metropolitan locations, otherwise known as regional locations. Despite this, to date, no research has focused on the lived experience and challenges associated with the resettlement of WoRB to regional contexts. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by investigating the resettlement experience of WoRB resettled in Tasmania—a state in Australia classified as a rural and regional location. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a group of 21 individuals (nine WoRB and 12 service providers). Thematic analysis identified four overarching themes—Communication Barriers and Lack of Fluency in English, Challenges Accessing Everyday Basic Needs, Loss of Connection to Culture of Origin and Inability to Access Mainstream Mental Health Services for Help. Participants also highlighted a number of unique gender-related vulnerabilities experienced during resettlement, which were exacerbated in regional locations due to health services being overstretched and under-resourced. Results of the current study are discussed in regard to policy and practical implications, taking into consideration the unique vulnerabilities experienced by WoRB, which, to date, are often overlooked.

Suggested Citation

  • Clare Hawkes & Kimberley Norris & Janine Joyce & Douglas Paton, 2021. "Resettlement Stressors for Women of Refugee Background Resettled in Regional Australia," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(8), pages 1-17, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:18:y:2021:i:8:p:3942-:d:532768

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Katie Vasey & Lenore Manderson, 2012. "Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 2(1), pages 1-16, January.
    2. Laura Smith & Ha Hoang & Tamara Reynish & Kim McLeod & Chona Hannah & Stuart Auckland & Shameran Slewa-Younan & Jonathan Mond, 2020. "Factors Shaping the Lived Experience of Resettlement for Former Refugees in Regional Australia," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(2), pages 1-18, January.
    3. Kelsey Lucyk & Lindsay McLaren, 2017. "Taking stock of the social determinants of health: A scoping review," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(5), pages 1-24, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Joyce, Lisa & Liamputtong, Pranee, 2017. "Acculturation stress and social support for young refugees in regional areas," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 18-26.
    2. Ana Gama & João Victor Rocha & Maria J. Marques & Sofia Azeredo-Lopes & Ana Rita Pedro & Sónia Dias, 2022. "How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic Affect Migrant Populations in Lisbon, Portugal? A Study on Perceived Effects on Health and Economic Condition," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(3), pages 1-10, February.
    3. Alexander Maas & Liang Lu, 2021. "Elections have Consequences: Partisan Politics may be Literally Killing Us," Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 45-56, January.
    4. Hui Chang & Jia Zhou & Zhiwen Wang, 2022. "Multidimensional Factors Affecting Successful Aging among Empty-Nesters in China Based on Social-Ecological System Theory," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(19), pages 1-12, September.
    5. Sanghamitra Pati & Abhinav Sinha & Shishirendu Ghosal & Sushmita Kerketta & John Tayu Lee & Srikanta Kanungo, 2022. "Family-Level Multimorbidity among Older Adults in India: Looking through a Syndemic Lens," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(16), pages 1-13, August.
    6. M. Pilar Matud & M. Concepción García & Demelza Fortes, 2019. "Relevance of Gender and Social Support in Self-Rated Health and Life Satisfaction in Elderly Spanish People," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 16(15), pages 1-15, July.
    7. Kim, Jisun & Kim, Dong Ha & Lee, Jihyun & Cheon, Youngseo & Yoo, Seunghyun, 2022. "A scoping review of qualitative geographic information systems in studies addressing health issues," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 314(C).
    8. Herman A. van Wietmarschen & Sjef Staps & Judith Meijer & J. Francisca Flinterman & Miek C. Jong, 2022. "The Use of the Bolk Model for Positive Health and Living Environment in the Development of an Integrated Health Promotion Approach: A Case Study in a Socioeconomically Deprived Neighborhood in The Net," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(4), pages 1-18, February.
    9. Júlia Alves Menezes & Ana Paula Madureira & Rhavena Barbosa dos Santos & Isabela de Brito Duval & Pedro Regoto & Carina Margonari & Martha Macêdo de Lima Barata & Ulisses Confalonieri, 2021. "Analyzing Spatial Patterns of Health Vulnerability to Drought in the Brazilian Semiarid Region," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(12), pages 1-19, June.
    10. Kelsey J. Picha & Cailee E. Welch Bacon & R. Curt Bay & Joy H. Lewis & Alison R. Snyder Valier, 2023. "Athletic Trainers’ Perceptions of and Experience with Social Determinants of Health," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 20(8), pages 1-11, April.
    11. Karatekin, Canan & Mason, Susan M. & Riegelman, Amy & Bakker, Caitlin & Hunt, Shanda & Gresham, Bria & Corcoran, Frederique & Barnes, Andrew, 2022. "Adverse childhood experiences: A scoping review of measures and methods," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    12. Ana-Marija Tomasi & Shameran Slewa-Younan & Renu Narchal & Pilar Rioseco, 2022. "Professional Mental Health Help-Seeking Amongst Afghan and Iraqi Refugees in Australia: Understanding Predictors Five Years Post Resettlement," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(3), pages 1-16, February.
    13. Maas, Alexander S. & Lu, Liang, 2020. "“Elections have Consequences”: Partisan Politics are Literally Killing Us," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304457, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    14. Simon K. Medcalfe & Catherine P. Slade & Wendy Habegger, 2023. "Religion as a social determinant of women's cancer screening: Evidence from state level data for policy and resource allocation," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 82(3), pages 263-279, May.
    15. Andrea Leuenberger & Olga Cambaco & Hyacinthe R. Zabré & Isaac Lyatuu & Jürg Utzinger & Khátia Munguambe & Sonja Merten & Mirko S. Winkler, 2021. "“It Is Like We Are Living in a Different World” : Health Inequity in Communities Surrounding Industrial Mining Sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and Tanzania," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(21), pages 1-22, October.
    16. Regina Grazuleviciene & Sandra Andrusaityte & Tomas Gražulevičius & Audrius Dėdelė, 2020. "Neighborhood Social and Built Environment and Disparities in the Risk of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 17(20), pages 1-16, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jijerp:v:18:y:2021:i:8:p:3942-:d:532768. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.