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Sons of the Soil, Migrants, and Civil War

Author

Listed:
  • Fearon, James D.
  • Laitin, David D.

Abstract

Summary In nearly a third of ethnic civil wars since 1945, the conflict develops between members of a regional ethnic group that considers itself to be the indigenous "sons of the soil" and recent migrants from other parts of the country. The migrants are typically members of the dominant ethnic group who migrate in search of land or government jobs, often supported by the state with economic incentives and development schemes. This paper elaborates on the concept of a sons-of-the-soil conflict; presents descriptive statistics and empirical patterns; identifies a typical escalation sequence; illustrates the several steps with an account of the Tamil-Sinhalese conflict along with other cases; discusses the obstacles to negotiated settlements; and concludes with a suggestion on the role of grievances in explaining civil war onsets.

Suggested Citation

  • Fearon, James D. & Laitin, David D., 2011. "Sons of the Soil, Migrants, and Civil War," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 199-211, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:2:p:199-211
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:cup:apsrev:v:97:y:2003:i:01:p:75-90_00 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Cetinyan, Rupen, 2002. "Ethnic Bargaining in the Shadow of Third-Party Intervention," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 56(03), pages 645-677, June.
    3. Rashid, A. & Shaheed, F., 1993. "Pakistan: Ethno-Politics and Contending Elites," Papers 45, United Nations - Research Institute of Social Development.
    4. Fearon, James D, 2003. "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 195-222, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Casey, Gregory P. & Owen, Ann L., 2014. "Inequality and Fractionalization," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 32-50.
    2. Ratner, Blake D. & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela & Hellin, Jonathon & Mapedza, Everisto & Unruh, Jon D. & Veening, Wouter & Haglund, Eric & May, Candace & Bruch, Carl, 2013. "Addressing conflict through collective action in natural resource management:," CAPRi working papers 112, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Gomes, Joseph Flavian, 2015. "The Political Economy of the Maoist Conflict in India: An Empirical Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 96-123.
    4. Ilia Murtazashvili & Jennifer Murtazashvili, 2015. "Anarchy, self-governance, and legal titling," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 162(3), pages 287-305, March.
    5. repec:eee:wdevel:v:106:y:2018:i:c:p:187-206 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:wdevel:v:96:y:2017:i:c:p:276-293 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Han, Enze & Paik, Christopher, 2017. "Ethnic Integration and Development in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 31-42.
    8. Bhavnani, Rikhil R. & Lacina, Bethany, 2017. "Fiscal Federalism at Work? Central Responses to Internal Migration in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 236-248.

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