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Port and modal allocation of waterborne containerized imports from Asia to the United States

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  • Leachman, Robert C.

Abstract

An economic optimization model of waterborne containerized imports from Asia to the USA is described. Imports are allocated to alternative ports and logistics channels so as to minimize total transportation and inventory costs for each importer. Logistics channels include direct shipment of marine containers via truck or rail, and trans-loading in the hinterlands of the ports of entry from marine containers into domestic trailers or containers. The model was exercised with 2004 actual transportation costs, import volumes and declared values, plus a range of hypothetical container fees assessed on imports routed via the San Pedro Bay Ports. The results show that, without reductions in container movement lead times, container fees would result in significant diversion of cargoes to other ports. In contrast, if infrastructure is improved such that lead times for container movement are significantly reduced, the model predicts little or no decrease in overall imports via San Pedro Bay but a substantial increase in trans-loaded imports for fees ranging up to $200 per 40-foot container.

Suggested Citation

  • Leachman, Robert C., 2008. "Port and modal allocation of waterborne containerized imports from Asia to the United States," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 313-331, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transe:v:44:y:2008:i:2:p:313-331
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Likun Wang & Anne Goodchild & Yong Wang, 2018. "The effect of distance on cargo flows: a case study of Chinese imports and their hinterland destinations," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 20(3), pages 456-475, September.
    2. Thi Yen Pham & Ki Young Kim & Gi-Tae YEO, 2018. "The Panama Canal Expansion and Its Impact on East–West Liner Shipping Route Selection," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(12), pages 1-16, November.
    3. Fan, Lei & Wilson, William W. & Dahl, Bruce, 2015. "Risk analysis in port competition for containerized imports," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 245(3), pages 743-753.
    4. Fedele Iannone, 2013. "Modelling the extended gateway concept in port hinterland container logistics," Chapters, in: Thomas Vanoutrive & Ann Verhetsel (ed.),Smart Transport Networks, chapter 8, pages 150-179, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Sanchez Rodrigues, V. & Pettit, S. & Harris, I. & Beresford, A. & Piecyk, M. & Yang, Z. & Ng, A., 2015. "UK supply chain carbon mitigation strategies using alternative ports and multimodal freight transport operations," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 40-56.
    6. Iannone, Fedele, 2012. "The private and social cost efficiency of port hinterland container distribution through a regional logistics system," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1424-1448.
    7. Fan, Lei & Wilson, William W. & Dahl, Bruce, 2012. "Congestion, port expansion and spatial competition for US container imports," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1121-1136.
    8. Fan, Lei & Wilson, William W. & Tolliver, Denver, 2009. "Optimization Model for Global Container Supply Chain: Imports to United States," 50th Annual Transportation Research Forum, Portland, Oregon, March 16-18, 2009 207483, Transportation Research Forum.
    9. Liao, Chun-Hsiung & Tseng, Po-Hsing & Cullinane, Kevin & Lu, Chin-Shan, 2010. "The impact of an emerging port on the carbon dioxide emissions of inland container transport: An empirical study of Taipei port," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 5251-5257, September.
    10. Thomas Vanoutrive, 2011. "Modelling the link between port throughput and economic activity," ERSA conference papers ersa10p881, European Regional Science Association.
    11. Martinez, Camil & Steven, Adams B. & Dresner, Martin, 2016. "East Coast vs. West Coast: The impact of the Panama Canal’s expansion on the routing of Asian imports into the United States," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 274-289.
    12. Fedele Iannone, 2011. "The extended gateway concept in port hinterland container logistics. A theoretical network programming formulation," Working Papers 11_16, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica, revised 2011.
    13. Bouchery, Yann & Woxenius, Johan & Fransoo, Jan C., 2020. "Identifying the market areas of port-centric logistics and hinterland intermodal transportation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 285(2), pages 599-611.
    14. Ping Wang & Joan P. Mileski & Qingcheng Zeng, 2019. "Alignments between strategic content and process structure: the case of container terminal service process automation," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 21(4), pages 543-558, December.
    15. Christopher B. Clott & Bruce C. Hartman & Robert Cannizzaro, 2018. "Standard setting and carrier differentiation at seaports," Journal of Shipping and Trade, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 1-23, December.

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