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Numerical analysis of electric bus fast charging strategies for demand charge reduction


  • Qin, Nan
  • Gusrialdi, Azwirman
  • Paul Brooker, R.
  • T-Raissi, Ali


Electric transit buses have been recognized as an important alternative to diesel buses with many environmental benefits. Electric buses employing lithium titanate batteries can provide uninterrupted transit service thanks to their ability of fast charging. However, fast charging may result in high demand charges which will increase the fuel costs thereby limiting the electric bus market penetration. In this paper, we simulated daily charging patterns and demand charges of a fleet of electric buses in Tallahassee, Florida and identified an optimal charging strategy to minimize demand charges. It was found that by using a charging threshold of 60–64%, a $160,848 total saving in electricity cost can be achieved for a five electric bus fleet, comparing to a charging threshold of 0–28%. In addition, the impact of fleet sizes on the fuel cost was investigated. Fleets of 4 and 12 buses will achieve the lowest cost per mile driven when one fast charger is installed.

Suggested Citation

  • Qin, Nan & Gusrialdi, Azwirman & Paul Brooker, R. & T-Raissi, Ali, 2016. "Numerical analysis of electric bus fast charging strategies for demand charge reduction," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 386-396.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:94:y:2016:i:c:p:386-396
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2016.09.014

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ding, Huajie & Hu, Zechun & Song, Yonghua, 2015. "Value of the energy storage system in an electric bus fast charging station," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 630-639.
    2. Iversen, Emil B. & Morales, Juan M. & Madsen, Henrik, 2014. "Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov decision process," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-12.
    3. Lajunen, Antti & Lipman, Timothy, 2016. "Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 329-342.
    4. Burke, Andrew & Miller, Marshall, 2009. "Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt3mc7g3vt, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    5. Zhou, Boya & Wu, Ye & Zhou, Bin & Wang, Renjie & Ke, Wenwei & Zhang, Shaojun & Hao, Jiming, 2016. "Real-world performance of battery electric buses and their life-cycle benefits with respect to energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 603-613.
    6. De Filippo, Giovanni & Marano, Vincenzo & Sioshansi, Ramteen, 2014. "Simulation of an electric transportation system at The Ohio State University," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1686-1691.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:7:p:1776-:d:156566 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Wang, Yusheng & Huang, Yongxi & Xu, Jiuping & Barclay, Nicole, 2017. "Optimal recharging scheduling for urban electric buses: A case study in Davis," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 115-132.


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