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An endogenous switching simultaneous equation system of employment, income, and car ownership


  • Bhat, Chandra R.
  • Koppelman, Frank S.


The research presented here makes an advance toward the inclusion of employment and income within a transportation framework based on the conceptual framework developed by the authors in a preceding paper. Employment and income are important determinants of travel behavior. They have been used as exogenous variables in travel forecasting models such as trip generation models, car ownership models and mode choice models. This paper proposes a fundamental change in the current view of employment and income as exogenous variables in travel demand models. In particular, we emphasize the need, both from a forecasting and estimation point of view, to include employment and income as endogenous variables within a disaggregate travel demand modeling framework. The paper formulates and estimates an integrated model of employment, income and car ownership, which takes account of interdependencies among these variables and their structural relationships with relevant exogenous variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Bhat, Chandra R. & Koppelman, Frank S., 1993. "An endogenous switching simultaneous equation system of employment, income, and car ownership," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 447-459, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:27:y:1993:i:6:p:447-459

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    Cited by:

    1. Bhat, Chandra R. & Pulugurta, Vamsi, 1998. "A comparison of two alternative behavioral choice mechanisms for household auto ownership decisions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 61-75, January.
    2. William Greene, 2014. "Models for ordered choices," Chapters,in: Handbook of Choice Modelling, chapter 15, pages 333-362 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:558-:d:95081 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bhat, Chandra R. & Singh, Sujit K., 2000. "A comprehensive daily activity-travel generation model system for workers," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-22, January.
    5. repec:kap:transp:v:44:y:2017:i:5:d:10.1007_s11116-016-9696-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:transb:v:104:y:2017:i:c:p:667-685 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Mierzejewska Lidia & Parysek Jerzy J., 2014. "Integrated planning of the development of a city in terms of the diurnal activity of its residents," Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, De Gruyter Open, vol. 25(25), pages 1-11, September.
    8. Jin, Jangik & Rafferty, Peter, 2017. "Does congestion negatively affect income growth and employment growth? Empirical evidence from US metropolitan regions," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 1-8.

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