IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/spomar/v7y2004i2p167-192.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Motives and Points of Attachment of Professional Golf Spectators

Author

Listed:
  • Robinson, Matthew J.
  • Trail, Galen T.
  • Kwon, Hyungil

Abstract

Although professional golf has emerged as a leading spectator sport during the 20th century, there has been little research examining the consumption behaviour of those who attend tournaments across the three professional tours in North America. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the motives as measured by the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and points of attachment as measured by the Point of Attachment Index differed by gender and/or the tour event watched, after controlling for age and employment status. The relationship between motives and points of attachment was also examined. Data were collected at a PGA, an LPGA and a PGA Senior Tour event on each day of each tournament. A 2 (gender) x 3 (tour) multivariate analysis of covariance procedure on each of the areas (motives and points of attachment) was conducted. Finally, multivariate multiple regression analysis was used to predict a combined set of dependent variables (points of attachment) from a combined set of predictors (motives). The MANCOVA procedure for the motive factors indicated that the interaction effect was significant but the amount of variance explained was small. The multivariate analysis of covariance procedure for the motive factors indicated that the main effects of spectator and gender were significant as was the interaction effect but the amount of variance explained by each independent variable and the interaction was small. There was also a significant but small association between the dependent variables and the covariates of age and employment status. The MANCOVA procedure for the points of attachment factors also indicated that the interaction effect was significant but the amount of variance explained was minimal. The multivariate analysis of covariance procedure for the points of attachment factors also indicated that the main effects of spectator gender and tour were significant. The interaction effect was also significant but the amount of variance explained by each independent variable and the interaction was minimal. There was a significant but small association between the covariate of age but not between employment status and the dependent variables. The multivariate multiple regression procedure indicated that the motives were significantly related to the points of attachment and the variance explained was large. Specifically, vicarious achievement explained a moderate to large amount of variance in identification with a golfer, tour and hosting community. Based on all of this information, marketing plans do not need to differ based on the tour and the primary focus should be on a specific golfer or set of golfers who are playing in the event.

Suggested Citation

  • Robinson, Matthew J. & Trail, Galen T. & Kwon, Hyungil, 2004. "Motives and Points of Attachment of Professional Golf Spectators," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 167-192, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:7:y:2004:i:2:p:167-192
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1441352304700492
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Dwyer, Brendan & Mudrick, Michael & Greenhalgh, Gregory P. & LeCrom, Carrie W. & Drayer, Joris, 2015. "The tie that blinds? Developing and validating a scale to measure emotional attachment to a sport team," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 570-582.
    2. Cottingham, Michael & Carroll, Michael S. & Phillips, Dennis & Karadakis, Kostas & Gearity, Brian T. & Drane, Dan, 2014. "Development and validation of the motivation scale for disability sport consumption," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 49-64.
    3. Karg, Adam J. & McDonald, Heath, 2011. "Fantasy sport participation as a complement to traditional sport consumption," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 327-346.
    4. repec:eee:joreco:v:19:y:2012:i:3:p:332-342 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Kwon, Harry H. & Trail, Galen T. & Anderson, Dean S., 2005. "Are Multiple Points of Attachment Necessary to Predict Cognitive, Affective, Conative, or Behavioral Loyalty?," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 255-270, November.
    6. Chen, Kenneth K. & Zhang, James J., 2011. "Examining consumer attributes associated with collegiate athletic facility naming rights sponsorship: Development of a theoretical framework," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 103-116, May.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:spomar:v:7:y:2004:i:2:p:167-192. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/716936/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.