Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: Does country-level gender equality matter?
Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 98 (2013)
Issue (Month): C ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/supportfaq.cws_home/regional|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Van de Velde, Sarah & Bracke, Piet & Levecque, Katia, 2010. "Gender differences in depression in 23 European countries. Cross-national variation in the gender gap in depression," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 305-313, July.
- Backhans, Mona C. & Lundberg, Michael & Månsdotter, Anna, 2007. "Does increased gender equality lead to a convergence of health outcomes for men and women? A study of Swedish municipalities," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 64(9), pages 1892-1903, May.
- Macintyre, Sally & Ford, Graeme & Hunt, Kate, 1999. "Do women 'over-report' morbidity? Men's and women's responses to structured prompting on a standard question on long standing illness," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 89-98, January.
- Chen, Ying-Yeh & Subramanian, S. V. & Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros & Kawachi, Ichiro, 2005. "Women's status and depressive symptoms: A multilevel analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 49-60, January.
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2005.
"Sex differences in morbidity and mortality,"
Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 42(2), pages 189-214, May.
- Anne C. Case & Christina Paxson, 2004. "Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality," NBER Working Papers 10653, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2004. "Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality," Working Papers 244, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Anne Case & Christina Paxson, 2004. "Sex Differences in Morbidity and Mortality," Working Papers 171, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- Kawachi, Ichiro & Kennedy, Bruce P. & Gupta, Vanita & Prothrow-Stith, Deborah, 1999. "Women's status and the health of women and men: a view from the States," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 21-32, January.
- Hendrik Jürges, 2007. "True health vs response styles: exploring cross-country differences in self-reported health," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 163-178.
- McDonough, Peggy & Walters, Vivienne, 2001. "Gender and health: reassessing patterns and explanations," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 547-559, February.
- Lahelma, Eero & Arber, Sara & Kivelä, Katariina & Roos, Eva, 2002. "Multiple roles and health among British and Finnish women: the influence of socioeconomic circumstances," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 54(5), pages 727-740, March.
- Courtenay, Will H., 2000. "Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: a theory of gender and health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 50(10), pages 1385-1401, May.
- Hunt, Kate & Annandale, Ellen, 1999. "Relocating gender and morbidity: examining men's and women's health in contemporary Western societies. Introduction to Special Issue on Gender and Health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-5, January.
- Torsheim, Torbjørn & Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike & Hetland, Jorn & Välimaa, Raili & Danielson, Mia & Overpeck, Mary, 2006. "Cross-national variation of gender differences in adolescent subjective health in Europe and North America," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 815-827, February.
- Hibbard, Judith H. & Pope, Clyde R., 1983. "Gender roles, illness orientation and use of medical services," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 129-137, January.
- Moss, Nancy E., 2002. "Gender equity and socioeconomic inequality: a framework for the patterning of women's health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 54(5), pages 649-661, March. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:98:y:2013:i:c:p:24-28. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.