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The intersections of HIV and violence: directions for future research and interventions


  • Maman, Suzanne
  • Campbell, Jacquelyn
  • Sweat, Michael D.
  • Gielen, Andrea C.


The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature on the intersections between HIV and violence and present an agenda for future research to guide policy and programs. This paper aims to answer four questions: (1) How does forced sex affect women's risk for HIV infection? (2) How do violence and threats of violence affect women's ability to negotiate condom use? (3) Is the risk of violence greater for women living with HIV infection than for noninfected women? (4) What are the implications of the existing evidence for the direction of future research and interventions? Together this collection of 29 studies from the US and from sub-Saharan Africa provides evidence for several different links between the epidemics of HIV and violence. However, there are a number of methodological limitations that can be overcome with future studies. First, additional prospective studies are needed to describe the ways which violence victimization may increase women's risk for HIV and how being HIV positive affects violence risk. Future studies need to describe men's perspective on both HIV risk and violence in order to develop effective interventions targeting men and women. The definitions and tools for measurement of concepts such as physical violence, forced sex, HIV risk, and serostatus disclosure need to be harmonized in the future. Finally, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods will help to describe the context and scope of the problem. The service implications of these studies are significant. HIV counseling and testing programs offer a unique opportunity to identify and assist women at risk for violence and to identify women who may be at high risk for HIV as a result of their history of assault. In addition, violence prevention programs, in settings where such programs exist, also offer opportunities to counsel women about their risks for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

Suggested Citation

  • Maman, Suzanne & Campbell, Jacquelyn & Sweat, Michael D. & Gielen, Andrea C., 2000. "The intersections of HIV and violence: directions for future research and interventions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 459-478, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:50:y:2000:i:4:p:459-478

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    Cited by:

    1. Tasnim Azim & Sharful Islam Khan & Quamrun Nahar & Masud Reza & Nazmul Alam & Rumana Saifi & M. Shah Alam & Ezazul Islam Chowdhury & Elizabeth Oliveras, 2009. "20 Years of HIV in Bangladesh," World Bank Other Operational Studies 27592, The World Bank.
    2. Chin, Yoo-Mi, 2013. "Does HIV increase the risk of spousal violence in sub-Saharan Africa?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 997-1006.
    3. Pitpitan, Eileen V. & Kalichman, Seth C. & Eaton, Lisa A. & Sikkema, Kathleen J. & Watt, Melissa H. & Skinner, Donald, 2012. "Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: Alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(8), pages 1417-1425.
    4. Hatcher, A.M. & Stöckl, H. & Christofides, N. & Woollett, N. & Pallitto, C.C. & Garcia-Moreno, C. & Turan, J.M., 2016. "Mechanisms linking intimate partner violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: A qualitative study in South Africa," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 130-139.
    5. Panda, Pradeep & Agarwal, Bina, 2005. "Marital violence, human development and women's property status in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 823-850, May.
    6. Pradeep Kumar Panda, 2006. "Rights-based Strategies in the Prevention of Domestic Violence," Working Papers id:748, eSocialSciences.
    7. Go, Vivian F. & Srikrishnan, Aylur K. & Salter, Megan L. & Mehta, Shruti & Johnson, Sethulakshmi C. & Sivaram, Sudha & Davis, Wendy & Solomon, Suniti & Celentano, David D., 2010. "Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(7), pages 1277-1284, October.
    8. Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman & Moradi, Tahereh & Lawoko, Stephen, 2009. "The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel m," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(10), pages 1801-1809, May.
    9. Watt, Melissa H. & Aunon, Frances M. & Skinner, Donald & Sikkema, Kathleen J. & Kalichman, Seth C. & Pieterse, Desiree, 2012. "“Because he has bought for her, he wants to sleep with her”: Alcohol as a currency for sexual exchange in South African drinking venues," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(7), pages 1005-1012.
    10. Jamal Nazrul Islam & Haradhan Kumar Mohajan & Pahlaj Moolio & Raymond Peter, 2010. "A Study on Global Human-Immunodeficiency Virus and its Effect in Bangladesh," KASBIT Business Journals (KBJ), Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT), vol. 3, pages 64-87, December.
    11. Moore, Ann M. & Frohwirth, Lori & Miller, Elizabeth, 2010. "Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 1737-1744, June.


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