IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Effect of tilt angle and connection mode of PVT modules on the energy efficiency of a hot water system for high-rise residential buildings


  • Sun, L.L.
  • Li, M.
  • Yuan, Y.P.
  • Cao, X.L.
  • Lei, B.
  • Yu, N.Y.


The tilt angle and connection mode of PVT modules are critical factors influencing the energy efficiency of PVT systems. To evaluate their effect, we built a PVT hot water system which is naturally driven by gravity and the PVT modules are installed on vertical facades of high-rise residential buildings. We develop a dynamic model for the simulation of the PVT hot water system. The simulation results are in good agreement with indoor experimental data. Compared with parallel connection, electric power for series connection decreases by 2.0%, thermal energy increases by 11.4% and total energy increases by 5.4%. The connection mode has more obvious influences on thermal energy than electrical power. Considering only total energy, PVT modules with a tilt angle of 20° can produce maximum energy benefits. However, the projection lengths of PVT modules should also be considered when selecting the optimum tilt angle. The optimum tilt angle is chosen as 40° when both total energy and projection length are considered. These findings are good references for the installation of PVT modules on vertical facades of high-rise residential buildings.

Suggested Citation

  • Sun, L.L. & Li, M. & Yuan, Y.P. & Cao, X.L. & Lei, B. & Yu, N.Y., 2016. "Effect of tilt angle and connection mode of PVT modules on the energy efficiency of a hot water system for high-rise residential buildings," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 291-301.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:93:y:2016:i:c:p:291-301
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.075

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chow, T.T., 2010. "A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 365-379, February.
    2. He, Wei & Chow, Tin-Tai & Ji, Jie & Lu, Jianping & Pei, Gang & Chan, Lok-shun, 2006. "Hybrid photovoltaic and thermal solar-collector designed for natural circulation of water," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 199-210, March.
    3. Sun, Liangliang & Lu, Lin & Yang, Hongxing, 2012. "Optimum design of shading-type building-integrated photovoltaic claddings with different surface azimuth angles," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 233-240.
    4. He, Wei & Hong, Xiaoqiang & Zhao, Xudong & Zhang, Xingxing & Shen, Jinchun & Ji, Jie, 2015. "Operational performance of a novel heat pump assisted solar façade loop-heat-pipe water heating system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 371-382.
    5. Chow, T.T. & Chan, A.L.S. & Fong, K.F. & Lin, Z. & He, W. & Ji, J., 2009. "Annual performance of building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating system for warm climate application," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(5), pages 689-696, May.
    6. Othman, M.Y. & Hamid, S.A. & Tabook, M.A.S. & Sopian, K. & Roslan, M.H. & Ibarahim, Z., 2016. "Performance analysis of PV/T Combi with water and air heating system: An experimental study," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 716-722.
    7. Othman, Mohd Yusof & Ibrahim, Adnan & Jin, Goh Li & Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz & Sopian, Kamaruzzaman, 2013. "Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) technology – The future energy technology," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 171-174.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:1:p:237-:d:127765 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:renene:v:129:y:2018:i:pa:p:419-430 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eee:renene:v:119:y:2018:i:c:p:152-159 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:8:p:1129-:d:106569 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:rensus:v:76:y:2017:i:c:p:645-672 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:energy:v:172:y:2019:i:c:p:141-154 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:eee:appene:v:247:y:2019:i:c:p:335-349 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:gam:jeners:v:12:y:2019:i:20:p:3929-:d:277268 is not listed on IDEAS


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:93:y:2016:i:c:p:291-301. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.