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Energy modeling of solar water heating systems with on-off control and thermally stratified storage using a fast computation algorithm

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  • Araújo, António
  • Silva, Rui

Abstract

This work presents a simplified model for the rapid computation of the yearly solar fraction of direct solar water heating systems using on-off control. Thermal stratification was included using a simple one-dimensional multi-node model. A time-step dependency analysis showed that a time step of 0.05h is a good compromise between accuracy and computation speed. The solar fraction increases with collector flow rate when the flow rate is low. In fully-mixed storage, the solar fraction keeps increasing with flow rate, although with a decreasing rate of increase. However, in stratified storage, the solar fraction reaches a maximum at an optimum flow rate, before it starts decreasing with flow rate. When the number of tank nodes increases from 1 to 4, the maximum solar fraction increases 5–28%; this increase is superior for less efficient collectors and lower collector areas. In low-stratified systems, the optimum flow rate is the maximum allowed by the system. However, in stratified systems, the optimum flow rate is reduced to values of 0.006–0.016m3h−1 per square meter of collector area. Unless the tank walls are covered by a rather thick layer of thermal insulation (about 0.2m), storage tank losses cannot be ignored.

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  • Araújo, António & Silva, Rui, 2020. "Energy modeling of solar water heating systems with on-off control and thermally stratified storage using a fast computation algorithm," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 891-906.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:150:y:2020:i:c:p:891-906
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2020.01.026
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    References listed on IDEAS

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