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The role of shorting, firm size, and time on market anomalies

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  • Israel, Ronen
  • Moskowitz, Tobias J.

Abstract

We examine the role of shorting, firm size, and time on the profitability of size, value, and momentum strategies. We find that long positions make up almost all of size, 60% of value, and half of momentum profits. Shorting becomes less important for momentum and more important for value as firm size decreases. The value premium decreases with firm size and is weak among the largest stocks. Momentum profits, however, exhibit no reliable relation with size. These effects are robust over 86 years of US equity data and almost 40 years of data across four international equity markets and five asset classes. Variation over time and across markets of these effects is consistent with random chance. We find little evidence that size, value, and momentum returns are significantly affected by changes in trading costs or institutional and hedge fund ownership over time.

Suggested Citation

  • Israel, Ronen & Moskowitz, Tobias J., 2013. "The role of shorting, firm size, and time on market anomalies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 275-301.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:108:y:2013:i:2:p:275-301
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2012.11.005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asset pricing; Market anomalies; Market efficiency; Size; Value; Momentum;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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