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Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed

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  • De Clercq, Dirk
  • Dakhli, Mourad

Abstract

Using strain theory to examine the relationship between sources of personal strain and ethical standards, we study how variations in the self-employed's household income, educational level, associational membership, and trust in institutions link to the extent to which they maintain high ethical standards. We test our hypotheses using data from 3716 self-employed persons across 39 countries. The self-employed's ethical standards relate positively to their household income and trust in institutions but negatively to their educational level and associational membership. A supplementary exploratory analysis provides further insights into how broader cultural and institutional contexts in which the self-employed are embedded might influence the relationship between sources of personal strain and ethical standards.

Suggested Citation

  • De Clercq, Dirk & Dakhli, Mourad, 2009. "Personal strain and ethical standards of the self-employed," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 477-490, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:24:y:2009:i:5:p:477-490
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Harry P Bowen & Dirk De Clercq, 2008. "Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 39(4), pages 768-768, June.
    2. Bass, Kenneth & Barnett, Tim & Brown, Gene, 1999. "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(02), pages 183-205, April.
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    5. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
    6. Mourad Dakhli & Dirk De Clercq, 2004. "Human capital, social capital, and innovation: a multi-country study," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 107-128, March.
    7. Bruderl, Josef & Preisendorfer, Peter, 1998. "Network Support and the Success of Newly Founded Businesses," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 213-225, May.
    8. Karlsson, Charlie & Karlsson, Martin, 2002. "Economic Policy, Institutions and Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 163-182, September.
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    11. Robinson, Peter B. & Sexton, Edwin A., 1994. "The effect of education and experience on self-employment success," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 141-156, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Harvey S. James Jr., 2015. "Generalized Morality, Institutions and Economic Growth, and the Intermediating Role of Generalized Trust," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(2), pages 165-196, May.
    2. Muafi, 2015. "ANTECEDENT COUNTERPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR: SMEs CASES," Polish Journal of Management Studies, Czestochowa Technical University, Department of Management, vol. 12(2), pages 114-121, December.
    3. Harris, Jared D. & Sapienza, Harry J. & Bowie, Norman E., 2009. "Ethics and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 407-418, September.
    4. Bruno S. Frey, 2010. "Withering academia?," IEW - Working Papers 512, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    5. Lim, Dominic S.K. & Oh, Chang Hoon & De Clercq, Dirk, 2016. "Engagement in entrepreneurship in emerging economies: Interactive effects of individual-level factors and institutional conditions," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 933-945.
    6. Muethel, Miriam & Hoegl, Martin, 2013. "Shared leadership effectiveness in independent professional teams," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 423-432.

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