Longevity risk management for life and variable annuities: The effectiveness of static hedging using longevity bonds and derivatives
For many years, the longevity risk of individuals has been underestimated, as survival probabilities have improved across the developed world. The uncertainty and volatility of future longevity has posed significant risk issues for both individuals and product providers of annuities and pensions. This paper investigates the effectiveness of static hedging strategies for longevity risk management using longevity bonds and derivatives (q-forwards) for the retail products: life annuity, deferred life annuity, indexed life annuity, and variable annuity with guaranteed lifetime benefits. Improved market and mortality models are developed for the underlying risks in annuities. The market model is a regime-switching vector error correction model for GDP, inflation, interest rates, and share prices. The mortality model is a discrete-time logit model for mortality rates with age dependence. Models were estimated using Australian data. The basis risk between annuitant portfolios and population mortality was based on UK experience. Results show that static hedging using q-forwards or longevity bonds reduces the longevity risk substantially for life annuities, but significantly less for deferred annuities. For inflation-indexed annuities, static hedging of longevity is less effective because of the inflation risk. Variable annuities provide limited longevity protection compared to life annuities and indexed annuities, and as a result longevity risk hedging adds little value for these products.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dahl, Mikkel & Moller, Thomas, 2006. "Valuation and hedging of life insurance liabilities with systematic mortality risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 193-217, October.
- Yijia Lin & Samuel H. Cox, 2005. "Securitization of Mortality Risks in Life Annuities," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 72(2), pages 227-252.
- Dahl, Mikkel, 2004. "Stochastic mortality in life insurance: market reserves and mortality-linked insurance contracts," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 113-136, August.
- Blake, D. & Cairns, A. J. G. & Dowd, K., 2006. "Living with Mortality: Longevity Bonds and Other Mortality-Linked Securities," British Actuarial Journal, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(01), pages 153-197, March.
- Willets, R. C., 2004. "The Cohort Effect: Insights and Explanations," British Actuarial Journal, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(04), pages 833-877, October.
- Biffis, Enrico, 2005. "Affine processes for dynamic mortality and actuarial valuations," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 443-468, December.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Bauer, Daniel & Kling, Alexander & Russ, Jochen, 2008. "A Universal Pricing Framework for Guaranteed Minimum Benefits in Variable Annuities," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(02), pages 621-651, November.
- Blake David & Cairns Andrew & Dowd Kevin, 2008. "The Birth of the Life Market," Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-32, September.
- Carter, Lawrence R. & Lee, Ronald D., 1992. "Modeling and forecasting US sex differentials in mortality," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 393-411, November.
- David Blake & Andrew Cairns & Kevin Dowd & Richard MacMinn, 2006. "Longevity Bonds: Financial Engineering, Valuation, and Hedging," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(4), pages 647-672.
- Dowd, Kevin & Cairns, Andrew J.G. & Blake, David, 2006. "Mortality-dependent financial risk measures," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 427-440, June.
- Jeffrey R. Brown & Peter R. Orszag, 2006. "The Political Economy of Government-Issued Longevity Bonds," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(4), pages 611-631.
- Kevin Dowd, 2003. "Survivor Bonds: A Comment on Blake and Burrows," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 70(2), pages 339-348.
- Schrager, David F., 2006. "Affine stochastic mortality," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 81-97, February.
- Bauer Daniel & Weber Frederik, 2008. "Assessing Investment and Longevity Risks within Immediate Annuities," Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-24, September.
- Andrew J. G. Cairns & David Blake & Kevin Dowd, 2006. "A Two-Factor Model for Stochastic Mortality with Parameter Uncertainty: Theory and Calibration," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(4), pages 687-718.
- Plat, Richard, 2009. "Stochastic portfolio specific mortality and the quantification of mortality basis risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 123-132, August.
- Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501, December.
- Kevin Dowd & David Blake & Andrew J. G. Cairns & Paul Dawson, 2006. "Survivor Swaps," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 73(1), pages 1-17.
- Wills, Samuel & Sherris, Michael, 2010. "Securitization, structuring and pricing of longevity risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 173-185, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:insuma:v:49:y:2011:i:1:p:100-114. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.