Distribution contracts to support optimal inventory holdings under demand uncertainty
When suppliers produce products for which demand is uncertain, they face a problem of inducing downstream distributors to stock inventory levels that the suppliers prefer. This paper considers a wide array of alternative supply contracts, each of which consists of a mixture of constant per-unit wholesale prices, buy-back arrangements, and post sale payments contingent on sales made, such as revenue sharing or buybacks. We show that linear supply contracts specifying any combination of two of these three instruments can implement the vertical integrated outcome for a monopoly, thereby generating the supplier's preferred inventory configuration and price distribution. We extend our results to differentiated product oligopoly, demonstrating that each supplier obtains its preferred inventory configuration and price distribution, given the choices of its rival. Distributors choose optimal inventories from the suppliers' standpoint, even if suppliers do not know the distribution of demand uncertainty, and, given the perfect competition among distributors, all profits in the supply chain are captured by suppliers. Thus, suppliers are able to deal with demand uncertainty with remarkably little information about demand, and without the need to control dealer actions in detail. In particular, suppliers need not specify either dealer inventories or resale prices, but instead encourage distributors to order based on information in their possession and to set prices that generate desirable resale price dispersion.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Howard P. Marvel & Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995.
"Demand Uncertainty, Inventories, and Resale Price Maintainance,"
019, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Deneckere, Raymond & Marvel, Howard P & Peck, James, 1996. "Demand Uncertainty, Inventories, and Resale Price Maintenance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 885-913, August.
- D. W. Carlton, 1976.
"Market Behavior With Demand Uncertainty and Price Inflexibility,"
179, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Carlton, Dennis W, 1978. "Market Behavior with Demand Uncertainty and Price Inflexibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(4), pages 571-87, September.
- Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995.
"Competition Over Price and Service Rate When Demand is Stochastic: A Strategic Analysis,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(1), pages 148-162, Spring.
- Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1992. "Competition over Price and Service Rate when Demand is Stochastic: A Strategic Analysis," Discussion Papers 990, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Howard P. Marvel & Hao Wang, 2007. "Inventories, Manufacturer Returns Policies, and Equilibrium Price Dispersion under Demand Uncertainty," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 1031-1051, December.
- Marvel, Howard P & Peck, James, 1995. "Demand Uncertainty and Returns Policies," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 691-714, August.
- Prescott, Edward C, 1975. "Efficiency of the Natural Rate," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(6), pages 1229-36, December.
- Deneckere, Raymond & Marvel, Howard P & Peck, James, 1997.
"Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintenance: Markdowns as Destructive Competition,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 619-41, September.
- Howard P. Marvel & Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995. "Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintainance: Markdowns as Destructive Competition," Working Papers 018, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Deneckere, R. & Marvel, H.P. & Peck, J., 1995. "Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintenace : Markdowns as Destructive Competition," Working papers 9507, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Howard P. Marvel & James Peck, 2008. "Inventory Turnover and Product Variety," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(3), pages 461-478, 08.
- Bousquet, Alain & Cremer, Helmuth & Ivaldi, Marc & Wolkowicz, Michel, 1998. "Risk sharing in licensing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 535-554, September.
- Eden, Benjamin, 1990. "Marginal Cost Pricing When Spot Markets Are Complete," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1293-1306, December.
- James D. Dana Jr., 1999. "Equilibrium Price Dispersion Under Demand Uncertainty: The Roles of Costly Capacity and Market Structure," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(4), pages 632-660, Winter.
- Gérard P. Cachon & Martin A. Lariviere, 2005. "Supply Chain Coordination with Revenue-Sharing Contracts: Strengths and Limitations," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(1), pages 30-44, January.
- Dana, James D, Jr & Spier, Kathryn E, 2001. "Revenue Sharing and Vertical Control in the Video Rental Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 223-45, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:27:y:2009:i:5:p:625-631. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.