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Voters' power in voting games with abstention: Influence relation and ordinal equivalence of power theories

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  • Tchantcho, Bertrand
  • Lambo, Lawrence Diffo
  • Pongou, Roland
  • Engoulou, Bertrand Mbama

Abstract

The influence relation was introduced by Isbell [Isbell, J.R., 1958. A class of simple games. Duke Math. J. 25, 423-439] to qualitatively compare the a priori influence of voters in a simple game, which by construction allows only "yes" and "no" votes. We extend this relation to voting games with abstention (VGAs), in which abstention is permitted as an intermediate option between a "yes" and a "no" vote. Unlike in simple games, this relation is not a preorder in VGAs in general. It is not complete either, but we characterize VGAs for which it is complete, and show that it is a preorder whenever it is complete. We also compare the influence relation with recent generalizations to VGAs of the Shapley-Shubik and Banzhaf-Coleman power indices [Felsenthal, D.S., Machover, M., 1997. Ternary voting games. Int. J. Game Theory 26, 335-351; Freixas, J., 2005a. The Shapley-Shubik power index for games with several levels of approval in the input and output. Dec. Support Systems 39, 185-195; Freixas, J., 2005b. The Banzhaf index for games with several levels of approval in the input and output. Ann. Operations Res. 137, 45-66]. For weakly equitable VGAs, the influence relation is a subset of the preorderings defined by these two power theories. We characterize VGAs for which the three relations are equivalent.

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  • Tchantcho, Bertrand & Lambo, Lawrence Diffo & Pongou, Roland & Engoulou, Bertrand Mbama, 2008. "Voters' power in voting games with abstention: Influence relation and ordinal equivalence of power theories," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 335-350, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:gamebe:v:64:y:2008:i:1:p:335-350
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. R J Johnston, 1978. "On the measurement of power: some reactions to Laver," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 10(8), pages 907-914, August.
    2. Dominique Lepelley & N. Andjiga & F. Chantreuil, 2003. "La mesure du pouvoir de vote," Post-Print halshs-00069255, HAL.
    3. Edward M. Bolger, 2002. "Characterizations of two power indices for voting games with r alternatives," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 19(4), pages 709-721.
    4. Josep Freixas & William S. Zwicker, 2003. "Weighted voting, abstention, and multiple levels of approval," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 21(3), pages 399-431, December.
    5. Rubinstein, Ariel, 1980. "Stability of decision systems under majority rule," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 150-159, October.
    6. Dan Felsenthal & Moshé Machover, 2005. "Voting power measurement: a story of misreinvention," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 25(2), pages 485-506, December.
    7. Lawrence Diffo Lambo & Joël Moulen, 2002. "Ordinal equivalence of power notions in voting games," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 313-325, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michel Grabisch & Agnieszka Rusinowska, 2010. "A model of influence with an ordered set of possible actions," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 69(4), pages 635-656, October.
    2. Grabisch, Michel & Rusinowska, Agnieszka, 2011. "Influence functions, followers and command games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 123-138, May.
    3. Bertrand Tchantcho & Lawrence Diffo Lambo & Roland Pongou & Joël Moulen, 2010. "On the equilibrium of voting games with abstention and several levels of approval," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 34(3), pages 379-396, March.
    4. Pongou, Roland & Tchantcho, Bertrand & Tedjeugang, Narcisse, 2014. "Power theories for multi-choice organizations and political rules: Rank-order equivalence," Operations Research Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 42-49.
    5. René Brink & Agnieszka Rusinowska & Frank Steffen, 2013. "Measuring power and satisfaction in societies with opinion leaders: an axiomatization," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 41(3), pages 671-683, September.
    6. Freixas, Josep & Marciniak, Dorota & Pons, Montserrat, 2012. "On the ordinal equivalence of the Johnston, Banzhaf and Shapley power indices," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 216(2), pages 367-375.
    7. Guemmegne, Juliette T. & Pongou, Roland, 2014. "A policy-based rationalization of collective rules: Dimensionality, specialized houses, and decentralized authority," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 182-193.
    8. Roland Pongou & Bertrand Tchantcho & Lawrence Diffo Lambo, 2011. "Political influence in multi-choice institutions: cyclicity, anonymity, and transitivity," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 70(2), pages 157-178, February.
    9. Artabe, Alaitz & Laruelle, Annick & Valenciano Llovera, Federico, 2011. "Preferences, actions and voting rules," IKERLANAK 2011-48, Universidad del País Vasco - Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I.
    10. Sébastien Courtin & Bertrand Tchantcho, 2015. "A note on the ordinal equivalence of power indices in games with coalition structure," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 78(4), pages 617-628, April.
    11. Sébastien Courtin & Bertrand Tchantcho, 2015. "A note on the ordinal equivalence of power indices in games with coalition structure," Post-Print hal-00914910, HAL.
    12. Parker, Cameron, 2012. "The influence relation for ternary voting games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 867-881.
    13. Freixas, Josep & Tchantcho, Bertrand & Tedjeugang, Narcisse, 2014. "Achievable hierarchies in voting games with abstention," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 236(1), pages 254-260.
    14. Courtin, Sébastien & Nganmeni, Zéphirin & Tchantcho, Bertrand, 2017. "Dichotomous multi-type games with a coalition structure," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 9-17.
    15. Freixas, Josep, 2012. "Probabilistic power indices for voting rules with abstention," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 89-99.
    16. Sébastien Courtin & Zéphirin Nganmeni & Bertrand Tchantcho, 2017. "Dichotomous multi-type games with a coalition structure," Post-Print halshs-01545772, HAL.
    17. René van den Brink & Agnieszka Rusinowska & Frank Steffen, 2009. "Measuring Power and Satisfaction in Societies with Opinion Leaders: Dictator and Opinion Leader Properties," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-052/1, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. L. Diffo Lambo & B. Tchantcho & J. Moulen, 2012. "Comparing influence theories in voting games under locally generated measures of dissatisfaction," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 41(3), pages 719-731, August.
    19. Freixas, Josep & Zwicker, William S., 2009. "Anonymous yes-no voting with abstention and multiple levels of approval," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 428-444, November.
    20. Alaitz Artabe & Annick Laruelle & Federico Valenciano, 2012. "Preferences, actions and voting rules," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 15-28, March.
    21. Sebastien Courtin & Bertrand Tchantcho, 2013. "A note on the ordinal equivalence of power indices in games with coalition structure," Working Papers hal-00914910, HAL.

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