Stock option contract adjustments: The case of special dividends
The terms of stock option contracts are adjusted in the event of unexpected corporate actions, and the nature of the adjustments may result in windfall gains or losses to open option positions. This paper evaluates the fairness of the two different procedures used for special cash dividends. We show that, while neither procedure is technically correct, the absolute adjustment used in the U.S. and Canada minimizes the windfall change in option value when the dividend is announced. In addition, the proportional adjustment used in Australia and Europe depends on stock price and is therefore vulnerable to temporary aberrations in the stock market.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Robert C. Merton, 2005.
"Theory of rational option pricing,"
World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 8, pages 229-288
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
- John R. Graham & Roni Michaely & Michael R. Roberts, 2003. "Do Price Discreteness and Transactions Costs Affect Stock Returns? Comparing Ex-Dividend Pricing before and after Decimalization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2611-2636, December.
- Roll, Richard, 1977. "An analytic valuation formula for unprotected American call options on stocks with known dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 251-258, November.
- Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
- David Durand & Alan M. May, 1960. "The Ex‐Dividend Behavior Of American Telephone And Telegraph Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 15(1), pages 19-31, 03.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
- Rubinstein, Mark, 1983. " Displaced Diffusion Option Pricing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 213-217, March.
- Whaley, Robert E., 1981. "On the valuation of American call options on stocks with known dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 207-211, June.
- Fleming, Jeff & Whaley, Robert E, 1994. " The Value of Wildcard Options," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 215-236, March.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
- James A. Campbell & William Beranek, 1955. "Stock Price Behavior On Ex‐Dividend Dates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 10(4), pages 425-429, December.
- Barone-Adesi, Giovanni & Whaley, Robert E., 1986. "The valuation of American call options and the expected ex-dividend stock price decline," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 91-111, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finmar:v:15:y:2012:i:2:p:233-257. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.