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Energy cost of living, 1972–1973


  • Herendeen, Robert A.
  • Ford, Charlotte
  • Hannon, Bruce


The total energy requirements of household consumption of all goods and services have been calculated. Source for consumption data is the 1972–1973 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Survey. These are converted to energy terms using input-output energy intensities. The dependence of household energy use on expenditures, number of household members, degree of urbanization, and other demographic-economic factors, has been investigated graphically and statistically. The major factor determining energy requirement is expenditure level, but this can be affected by up to about 15% by variation in the other factors. In agreement with previous work based on the 1960–1961 BLS Survey, we find that 1.(1) the dependence of total energy requirements on expenditures shows a tendency to saturation;2.(2) about one-half of the total energy of the average household is a result of the purchase of fuels and electricity while the other half results from the purchase of non-energy commodities. Application to the analysis of an energy tax and rebate program is discussed briefly.

Suggested Citation

  • Herendeen, Robert A. & Ford, Charlotte & Hannon, Bruce, 1981. "Energy cost of living, 1972–1973," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 6(12), pages 1433-1450.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:6:y:1981:i:12:p:1433-1450
    DOI: 10.1016/0360-5442(81)90069-4

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    Cited by:

    1. Herendeen, Robert A. & Wildermuth, Todd, 2002. "Resource-based sustainability indicators: Chase County, Kansas, as example," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 243-257, August.
    2. Hawkins, Jacob & Ma, Chunbo & Schilizzi, Steven & Zhang, Fan, 2015. "Promises and pitfalls in environmentally extended input–output analysis for China: A survey of the literature," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 81-88.
    3. Lenzen, Manfred & Wier, Mette & Cohen, Claude & Hayami, Hitoshi & Pachauri, Shonali & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2006. "A comparative multivariate analysis of household energy requirements in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 181-207.
    4. Lenzen, Manfred & Dey, Christopher & Foran, Barney, 2004. "Energy requirements of Sydney households," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 375-399, July.
    5. Brown, M. T. & Herendeen, R. A., 1996. "Embodied energy analysis and EMERGY analysis: a comparative view," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 219-235, December.
    6. Wiedenhofer, Dominik & Lenzen, Manfred & Steinberger, Julia K., 2013. "Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 696-707.
    7. Weber, Christopher L. & Matthews, H. Scott, 2008. "Quantifying the global and distributional aspects of American household carbon footprint," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 379-391, June.
    8. Herendeen, Robert A, 2004. "Personal energy impact of attending a professional meeting," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 13-17.
    9. Mathur, Aparna & Morris, Adele C., 2014. "Distributional effects of a carbon tax in broader U.S. fiscal reform," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 326-334.
    10. Serrano, Monica, 2007. "The Production and Consumption Accounting Principles as a Guideline for Designing Environmental Tax Policy," Climate Change Modelling and Policy Working Papers 12032, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    11. Büchs, Milena & Schnepf, Sylke V., 2013. "Who emits most? Associations between socio-economic factors and UK households' home energy, transport, indirect and total CO2 emissions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 114-123.
    12. Age Poom & Rein Ahas, 2016. "How Does the Environmental Load of Household Consumption Depend on Residential Location?," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-18, August.
    13. Pachauri, Shonali, 2004. "An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(15), pages 1723-1735, October.
    14. Ivan Tilov & Benjamin Volland & Mehdi Farsi, 2017. "Interactions in Swiss Households' Energy Demand: A Holistic Approach," IRENE Working Papers 17-11, IRENE Institute of Economic Research.
    15. Serrano, Monica & Roca, Jordi, 2007. "Atmospheric Pollution and Consumption Patterns in Spain: An Input-Output Approach," Climate Change Modelling and Policy Working Papers 9090, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    16. Ferguson, Thomas M. & MacLean, Heather L., 2011. "Trade-linked Canada–United States household environmental impact analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 8011-8021.
    17. Hannon, Bruce, 1995. "Input-output economics and ecology," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 331-333, August.
    18. Baynes, Timothy & Lenzen, Manfred & Steinberger, Julia K. & Bai, Xuemei, 2011. "Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7298-7309.

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