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Sky type classification in Central England during winter


  • Markou, M.T.
  • Kambezidis, H.D.
  • Bartzokas, A.
  • Katsoulis, B.D.
  • Muneer, T.


In the present work, we studied the exterior daylight conditions in Sheffield in Central England (53.38° N, 1.50° W) during winter. The study makes use of the 15 standard sky types defined by Kittler et al. These sky types are presented as diagrams of the ratio of the zenith luminance (Lz) to the diffuse horizontal illuminance (Dv) against solar altitude (γ). The illuminance parameters used are time series of half-hourly values of Dv, Lz, global (Ge) and diffuse (De) horizontal irradiance and γ for the period from November 1, 1993, to February 10, 1994.

Suggested Citation

  • Markou, M.T. & Kambezidis, H.D. & Bartzokas, A. & Katsoulis, B.D. & Muneer, T., 2005. "Sky type classification in Central England during winter," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1667-1674.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:30:y:2005:i:9:p:1667-1674
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    Cited by:

    1. Janjai, Serm & Plaon, Piyanuch, 2011. "Estimation of sky luminance in the tropics using artificial neural networks: Modeling and performance comparison with the CIE model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 840-847, March.
    2. Mettanant, Vichuda & Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat & Chirarattananon, Surapong, 2017. "A model of Thai’s sky luminance distribution based on reduced CIE standard sky types," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 739-749.
    3. Li, Danny H.W., 2010. "A review of daylight illuminance determinations and energy implications," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(7), pages 2109-2118, July.
    4. Martínez-Chico, M. & Batlles, F.J. & Bosch, J.L., 2011. "Cloud classification in a mediterranean location using radiation data and sky images," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4055-4062.
    5. Li, Danny H.W. & Chau, T.C. & Wan, Kevin K.W., 2014. "A review of the CIE general sky classification approaches," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 563-574.
    6. Li, Danny H.W. & Chau, Natalie T.C. & Wan, Kevin K.W., 2013. "Predicting daylight illuminance and solar irradiance on vertical surfaces based on classified standard skies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 252-258.
    7. Li, Danny H.W. & Lou, Siwei, 2018. "Review of solar irradiance and daylight illuminance modeling and sky classification," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 445-453.

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