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Long-term energy-efficiency improvements in the paper and board industry


  • De Beer, Jeroen
  • Worrell, Ernst
  • Blok, Kornelis


A method for identifying and characterizing technologies that can improve the energy efficiency in the long term is described and applied to the paper and board industry. Current paper-making processes require 3–9GJ heat per tonne of paper, mainly for the removal of water that is added initially to the fibers, and 1.3–2.9GJ electricity/tonne. The selection of technologies is based on the results of an exergy analysis of a paper mill. Seven relevant technologies are described. It is concluded that in the future paper-mill a combination of new pressing and drying techniques, latent heat recovery systems, and a number of minor improvements can reduce the specific heat demand by 75–90% compared to the current average. The specific electricity consumption will remain about equal or will increase slightly. Investment costs will be lower than for conventional paper-making processes. Benefits other than energy-efficiency improvement, e.g., an improved paper quality or a higher production rate, are the driving forces for the development of the technologies.

Suggested Citation

  • De Beer, Jeroen & Worrell, Ernst & Blok, Kornelis, 1998. "Long-term energy-efficiency improvements in the paper and board industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 21-42.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:23:y:1998:i:1:p:21-42
    DOI: 10.1016/S0360-5442(97)00065-0

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    Cited by:

    1. Hayashi, Daisuke & Krey, Matthias, 2007. "Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 1917-1931.
    2. Dénarié, A. & Muscherà, M. & Calderoni, M. & Motta, M., 2019. "Industrial excess heat recovery in district heating: Data assessment methodology and application to a real case study in Milano, Italy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 170-182.
    3. Brückner, Sarah & Liu, Selina & Miró, Laia & Radspieler, Michael & Cabeza, Luisa F. & Lävemann, Eberhard, 2015. "Industrial waste heat recovery technologies: An economic analysis of heat transformation technologies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 157-167.
    4. Fleiter, Tobias & Fehrenbach, Daniel & Worrell, Ernst & Eichhammer, Wolfgang, 2012. "Energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry – A model-based assessment of saving potentials," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 84-99.
    5. Huang, Yun-Hsun & Chang, Yi-Lin & Fleiter, Tobias, 2016. "A critical analysis of energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 14-26.
    6. Guilherme Fracaro & Esa Vakkilainen & Marcelo Hamaguchi & Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza, 2012. "Energy Efficiency in the Brazilian Pulp and Paper Industry," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(9), pages 1-23, September.
    7. Laurijssen, Jobien & De Gram, Frans J. & Worrell, Ernst & Faaij, Andre, 2010. "Optimizing the energy efficiency of conventional multi-cylinder dryers in the paper industry," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3738-3750.
    8. McKenna, R.C. & Norman, J.B., 2010. "Spatial modelling of industrial heat loads and recovery potentials in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5878-5891, October.
    9. Utlu, Zafer & Kincay, Olcay, 2013. "An assessment of a pulp and paper mill through energy and exergy analyses," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 565-573.
    10. Nystrom, Ingrid & Cornland, Deborah W., 2003. "Strategic choices: Swedish climate intervention policies and the forest industry's role in reducing CO2 emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 937-950, August.
    11. Akvile Lawrence & Patrik Thollander & Magnus Karlsson, 2018. "Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(6), pages 1-35, June.
    12. Hammond, G.P. & Norman, J.B., 2012. "Decomposition analysis of energy-related carbon emissions from UK manufacturing," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 220-227.
    13. Akvile Lawrence & Patrik Thollander & Mariana Andrei & Magnus Karlsson, 2019. "Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(2), pages 1-22, January.
    14. Miner, R & Upton, B, 2002. "Methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from lime kilns at kraft pulp mills," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 729-738.
    15. Brueckner, Sarah & Miró, Laia & Cabeza, Luisa F. & Pehnt, Martin & Laevemann, Eberhard, 2014. "Methods to estimate the industrial waste heat potential of regions – A categorization and literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 164-171.

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