IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A qualitative factor analysis of renewable energy and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) in the Asia-Pacific


  • Sovacool, Benjamin K.


This study assesses the factors responsible for the success and failure of renewable energy access programs in Bangladesh, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. Based on 441 research interviews over the course of four years, site visits to 90 renewable energy facilities, and focus groups with almost 800 community members in 10 countries, this study develops a series of overarching qualitative factors that correlate with programs that met their targets, sometimes ahead of schedule, and produced measurable benefits exceeding costs. The inverse of these factors is associated with programs that did not meet their targets, were behind schedule, and/or produced measurable costs exceeding benefits. It concludes by offering 10 lessons for energy analysts and development practitioners concerning appropriate technology, income generation, financing, political leadership, capacity building, programmatic flexibility, marketing and awareness, stakeholder engagement, community ownership, and technical standardization.

Suggested Citation

  • Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2013. "A qualitative factor analysis of renewable energy and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) in the Asia-Pacific," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 393-403.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:59:y:2013:i:c:p:393-403
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.03.051

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2011. "An international comparison of four polycentric approaches to climate and energy governance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3832-3844, June.
    2. Martinot, Eric, 2001. "Renewable energy investment by the World Bank," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 689-699, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:rensus:v:81:y:2018:i:p2:p:2335-2342 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:renene:v:115:y:2018:i:c:p:509-520 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Ryan, Sarah E., 2016. "The geography of energy and education: Leaders, laggards, and lessons for achieving primary and secondary school electrification," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 107-123.
    4. Wong, Chan-Yuan & Fatimah Mohamad, Zeeda & Keng, Zi-Xiang & Ariff Azizan, Suzana, 2014. "Examining the patterns of innovation in low carbon energy science and technology: Publications and patents of Asian emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 789-802.
    5. repec:eee:energy:v:142:y:2018:i:c:p:962-982 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:rensus:v:95:y:2018:i:c:p:95-109 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Brown, Alistair, 2016. "The need for improved financial reporting of a developing country energy utility," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1448-1454.
    8. Herington, M.J. & van de Fliert, E. & Smart, S. & Greig, C. & Lant, P.A., 2017. "Rural energy planning remains out-of-step with contemporary paradigms of energy access and development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 1412-1419.
    9. repec:eee:rensus:v:93:y:2018:i:c:p:719-731 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Veldhuis, A.J. & Reinders, A.H.M.E., 2013. "Reviewing the potential and cost-effectiveness of grid-connected solar PV in Indonesia on a provincial level," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 315-324.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:59:y:2013:i:c:p:393-403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.