Loafing in the 21st century: Enhanced opportunities--and remedies--for withholding job effort in the new workplace
The electronic workplace, a greater emphasis on knowledge work and teams, and the increased relevance of managing impressions of work performance are among factors that relate to higher levels of withholding effort among problem employees in the 21st century. This article considers these three factors in the context of dominant organizational forms--low-cost operators, global competitor corporations, and high-involvement firms--and how each can lead to lower on-the-job effort. Remedies are offered for new forms of withholding effort such as cyberloafing, as well as hiding lack of effort in virtual teams and through impression management. In addition, a different way of considering the problem of lower job effort is proposed through examination of how a work ethic and a leisure ethic can be synthesized to enhance organizational creativity, innovation, and performance.
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