IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/appene/v130y2014icp519-531.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Study on offshore wind power potential and wind farm optimization in Hong Kong

Author

Listed:
  • Gao, Xiaoxia
  • Yang, Hongxing
  • Lu, Lin

Abstract

This paper investigates the potential and feasibility of the offshore wind energy in Hong Kong. The potential offshore wind farm locations are selected after considering the man-made activities in Hong Kong waters that may come into conflict with the development of the offshore wind farms. The hourly wind data of ten years (2002–2011) in the corresponding potential wind farms are analyzed. The assessment for offshore power potential is obtained with the potential wind farm being optimized using the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm (MPGA) which aims at getting a minimum cost of energy (COE) with a maximum power generation. The optimal wind turbine layout configurations are proposed with an economic analysis and monthly power generation. Results show that the potential offshore wind farm area in and beyond (2km away from its boundary) Hong Kong is 357.78km2 (21.68% of the HK water area) and southeastern water area is the most suitable location for offshore wind farm development. In additions, the potential annual offshore wind power generation is 112.81×108kWh which accounts for 25.06% of the total annual power consumption in 2011 if the wind turbine layout is optimized. The potential monthly offshore wind power contribution to the electricity demand is the highest in October (46.46%) and lowest in August (7.93%).

Suggested Citation

  • Gao, Xiaoxia & Yang, Hongxing & Lu, Lin, 2014. "Study on offshore wind power potential and wind farm optimization in Hong Kong," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 519-531.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:130:y:2014:i:c:p:519-531
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.02.070
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261914002153
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.02.070?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Heptonstall, Philip & Gross, Robert & Greenacre, Philip & Cockerill, Tim, 2012. "The cost of offshore wind: Understanding the past and projecting the future," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 815-821.
    2. Blanco, María Isabel, 2009. "The economics of wind energy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(6-7), pages 1372-1382, August.
    3. Zhao, Zhen-yu & Ling, Wen-jun & Zillante, George & Zuo, Jian, 2012. "Comparative assessment of performance of foreign and local wind turbine manufacturers in China," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 424-432.
    4. Green, Richard & Vasilakos, Nicholas, 2011. "The economics of offshore wind," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 496-502, February.
    5. Yang, Ming & Nguyen, François & De T'Serclaes, Philippine & Buchner, Barbara, 2010. "Wind farm investment risks under uncertain CDM benefit in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1436-1447, March.
    6. Malik, A. & Al-Badi, A.H., 2009. "Economics of Wind turbine as an energy fuel saver – A case study for remote application in oman," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 1573-1578.
    7. Dvorak, Michael J. & Archer, Cristina L. & Jacobson, Mark Z., 2010. "California offshore wind energy potential," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1244-1254.
    8. Li, G, 2000. "Feasibility of large scale offshore wind power for Hong Kong — a preliminary study," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 387-402.
    9. Grady, S.A. & Hussaini, M.Y. & Abdullah, M.M., 2005. "Placement of wind turbines using genetic algorithms," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 259-270.
    10. Sun, Xiaojing & Huang, Diangui & Wu, Guoqing, 2012. "The current state of offshore wind energy technology development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 298-312.
    11. Hong, Lixuan & Möller, Bernd, 2011. "Offshore wind energy potential in China: Under technical, spatial and economic constraints," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4482-4491.
    12. Oh, Ki-Yong & Kim, Ji-Young & Lee, Jae-Kyung & Ryu, Moo-Sung & Lee, Jun-Shin, 2012. "An assessment of wind energy potential at the demonstration offshore wind farm in Korea," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 555-563.
    13. Lu, Lin & Yang, Hongxing & Burnett, John, 2002. "Investigation on wind power potential on Hong Kong islands—an analysis of wind power and wind turbine characteristics," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-12.
    14. Snyder, Brian & Kaiser, Mark J., 2009. "Ecological and economic cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1567-1578.
    15. Pérez, Beatriz & Mínguez, Roberto & Guanche, Raúl, 2013. "Offshore wind farm layout optimization using mathematical programming techniques," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 389-399.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Gao, Xiaoxia & Yang, Hongxing & Lu, Lin, 2014. "Investigation into the optimal wind turbine layout patterns for a Hong Kong offshore wind farm," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 430-442.
    2. Poulsen, Thomas & Lema, Rasmus, 2017. "Is the supply chain ready for the green transformation? The case of offshore wind logistics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 758-771.
    3. Satir, Mert & Murphy, Fionnuala & McDonnell, Kevin, 2018. "Feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in the Aegean Sea, Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2552-2562.
    4. Chen, Xinping & Foley, Aoife & Zhang, Zenghai & Wang, Kaimin & O'Driscoll, Kieran, 2020. "An assessment of wind energy potential in the Beibu Gulf considering the energy demands of the Beibu Gulf Economic Rim," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 119(C).
    5. Sun, Xiaojing & Huang, Diangui & Wu, Guoqing, 2012. "The current state of offshore wind energy technology development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 298-312.
    6. Hong, Lixuan & Möller, Bernd, 2011. "Offshore wind energy potential in China: Under technical, spatial and economic constraints," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4482-4491.
    7. Salo, Olli & Syri, Sanna, 2014. "What economic support is needed for Arctic offshore wind power?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 343-352.
    8. Nagababu, Garlapati & Kachhwaha, Surendra Singh & Savsani, Vimal, 2017. "Estimation of technical and economic potential of offshore wind along the coast of India," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 79-91.
    9. Rodrigues, S. & Restrepo, C. & Kontos, E. & Teixeira Pinto, R. & Bauer, P., 2015. "Trends of offshore wind projects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 1114-1135.
    10. Prässler, Thomas & Schaechtele, Jan, 2012. "Comparison of the financial attractiveness among prospective offshore wind parks in selected European countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 86-101.
    11. Nie, Bingchuan & Li, Jiachun, 2018. "Technical potential assessment of offshore wind energy over shallow continent shelf along China coast," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 128(PA), pages 391-399.
    12. Shu, Z.R. & Li, Q.S. & Chan, P.W., 2015. "Investigation of offshore wind energy potential in Hong Kong based on Weibull distribution function," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 362-373.
    13. Salcedo-Sanz, S. & Gallo-Marazuela, D. & Pastor-Sánchez, A. & Carro-Calvo, L. & Portilla-Figueras, A. & Prieto, L., 2014. "Offshore wind farm design with the Coral Reefs Optimization algorithm," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 109-115.
    14. Chen, Xinping & Wang, Kaimin & Zhang, Zenghai & Zeng, Yindong & Zhang, Yao & O'Driscoll, Kieran, 2017. "An assessment of wind and wave climate as potential sources of renewable energy in the nearshore Shenzhen coastal zone of the South China Sea," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 789-801.
    15. Schallenberg-Rodríguez, Julieta & García Montesdeoca, Nuria, 2018. "Spatial planning to estimate the offshore wind energy potential in coastal regions and islands. Practical case: The Canary Islands," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 143(C), pages 91-103.
    16. deCastro, M. & Salvador, S. & Gómez-Gesteira, M. & Costoya, X. & Carvalho, D. & Sanz-Larruga, F.J. & Gimeno, L., 2019. "Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 55-70.
    17. Jin, Xin & Zhang, Zhaolong & Shi, Xiaoqiang & Ju, Wenbin, 2014. "A review on wind power industry and corresponding insurance market in China: Current status and challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1069-1082.
    18. Lei You & Jian Wang & Gang Liu & Hui Ma & Ming Zheng, 2018. "Thermal Rating of Offshore Wind Farm Cables Installed in Ventilated J-Tubes," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(3), pages 1-14, March.
    19. Jim Kuo & Kevin Pan & Ni Li & He Shen, 2020. "Wind Farm Yaw Optimization via Random Search Algorithm," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(4), pages 1-15, February.
    20. Li, Jiale & Yu, Xiong (Bill), 2018. "Onshore and offshore wind energy potential assessment near Lake Erie shoreline: A spatial and temporal analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 1092-1107.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:130:y:2014:i:c:p:519-531. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/405891/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.