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Optimal placement of distributed generations considering voltage stability and power losses with observing voltage-related constraints


  • Esmaili, Masoud
  • Firozjaee, Esmail Chaktan
  • Shayanfar, Heidar Ali


Distributed Generations (DGs) can be an efficient solution to today’s power system environmental and economical challenges. Installing DGs influences power system stability and losses. In this paper, a method is presented for locating and sizing of DGs to enhance voltage stability and to reduce network losses simultaneously. First, vulnerable buses from voltage stability point of view are determined using bifurcation analysis as the best locations to install DGs. Number of DGs is so chosen that system voltage profile is brought into the given permissible voltage security limits. Then, the global optimal size of DGs is determined employing the dynamic programming search method. It is shown that considering DG reactive limits makes different voltage stability bifurcations happen and it affects the optimal location, size, and number of DGs. Results of testing the proposed method and previous methods on a 34-bus distribution test system are discussed in detail and they show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Suggested Citation

  • Esmaili, Masoud & Firozjaee, Esmail Chaktan & Shayanfar, Heidar Ali, 2014. "Optimal placement of distributed generations considering voltage stability and power losses with observing voltage-related constraints," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1252-1260.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:113:y:2014:i:c:p:1252-1260
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.09.004

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Niknam, Taher & Taheri, Seyed Iman & Aghaei, Jamshid & Tabatabaei, Sajad & Nayeripour, Majid, 2011. "A modified honey bee mating optimization algorithm for multiobjective placement of renewable energy resources," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 4817-4830.
    2. Ghadikolaei, Hadi Moghimi & Tajik, Elham & Aghaei, Jamshid & Charwand, Mansour, 2012. "Integrated day-ahead and hour-ahead operation model of discos in retail electricity markets considering DGs and CO2 emission penalty cost," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 174-185.
    3. Hung, Duong Quoc & Mithulananthan, N. & Bansal, R.C., 2013. "Analytical strategies for renewable distributed generation integration considering energy loss minimization," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 75-85.
    4. Gitizadeh, Mohsen & Vahed, Ali Azizi & Aghaei, Jamshid, 2013. "Multistage distribution system expansion planning considering distributed generation using hybrid evolutionary algorithms," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 655-666.
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    2. Sultana, U. & Khairuddin, Azhar B. & Aman, M.M. & Mokhtar, A.S. & Zareen, N., 2016. "A review of optimum DG placement based on minimization of power losses and voltage stability enhancement of distribution system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 363-378.
    3. repec:gam:jeners:v:11:y:2018:i:1:p:255-:d:127982 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Fu, Xueqian & Chen, Haoyong & Cai, Runqing & Yang, Ping, 2015. "Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 173-182.
    5. Jin, Peng & Li, Yang & Li, Guoqing & Chen, Zhe & Zhai, Xiaojuan, 2017. "Optimized hierarchical power oscillations control for distributed generation under unbalanced conditions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C), pages 343-352.
    6. Wierzbowski, Michal & Lyzwa, Wojciech & Musial, Izabela, 2016. "MILP model for long-term energy mix planning with consideration of power system reserves," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 93-111.
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    12. Ahmadigorji, Masoud & Amjady, Nima, 2015. "Optimal dynamic expansion planning of distribution systems considering non-renewable distributed generation using a new heuristic double-stage optimization solution approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 655-665.
    13. Cabrera-Tobar, Ana & Bullich-Massagué, Eduard & Aragüés-Peñalba, Mònica & Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol, 2016. "Review of advanced grid requirements for the integration of large scale photovoltaic power plants in the transmission system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 971-987.
    14. repec:eee:appene:v:211:y:2018:i:c:p:358-367 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Karatepe, Engin & Ugranlı, Faruk & Hiyama, Takashi, 2015. "Comparison of single- and multiple-distributed generation concepts in terms of power loss, voltage profile, and line flows under uncertain scenarios," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 317-327.
    16. repec:eee:energy:v:164:y:2018:i:c:p:1216-1228 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Xydas, Erotokritos & Marmaras, Charalampos & Cipcigan, Liana M., 2016. "A multi-agent based scheduling algorithm for adaptive electric vehicles charging," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 354-365.
    18. Cao, Sunliang & Sirén, Kai, 2014. "Impact of simulation time-resolution on the matching of PV production and household electric demand," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 192-208.
    19. repec:eee:renene:v:115:y:2018:i:c:p:308-325 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. repec:eee:energy:v:147:y:2018:i:c:p:980-994 is not listed on IDEAS


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