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Reexamination of the A-J effect


  • Michael R. Caputo

    () (University of California, Davis)

  • M. Hossein Partovi

    () (California State University, Sacramento)


We establish four necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the Averch-Johnson effect in a generalized version of their famous model of the rate-of-return regulated firm. The four necessary and sufficient conditions are then compared to the two stronger sufficient conditions for the Averch-Johnson effect found in the literature. Our analysis also permits us to put to rest a somewhat protracted debate about the very existence of the Averch-Johnson effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael R. Caputo & M. Hossein Partovi, 2002. "Reexamination of the A-J effect," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 12(10), pages 1-9.
  • Handle: RePEc:ebl:ecbull:eb-02l20003

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Takayama, Akira, 1969. "Behavior of the Firm under Regulatory Constraint," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(3), pages 255-260, June.
    2. Zajac, E. E., 1972. "Lagrange multiplier values at constrained optima," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 125-131, April.
    3. El-Hodiri, Mohamed & Takayama, Akira, 1973. "Behavior of the Firm Under Regulatory Constraint: Clarifications," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 235-237, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael R. Caputo & Dmitriy Popov, 2014. "Comparative Statics Of A Monopolistic Firm Facing Rate-Of-Return And Command-And-Control Pollution Constraints," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(S1), pages 17-35, December.

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    JEL classification:

    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy


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