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Private Bildungsausgaben für Kinder: einkommensschwache Familien sind relativ stärker belastet


  • Carsten Schröder
  • C. Katharina Spieß
  • Johanna Storck


Education is not financed solely by the taxpayer— many institutions and activities require payment of top-up fees, at the very least, this applies for instance to education and care services for children. A household’s private expenditure on education depends largely on the families’ available financial resources. However, to date, very little research has been conducted on the relationship between income and expenditure on education. The present study by DIW Berlin is based on data from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study and the SOEP-related study, Families in Germany (Familien in Deutschland, FiD) for 2012. The present work analyzes private spending on various educational provisions such as child daycare services, private schools, or non-formal educational programs such as those organized by sports clubs or music schools. The findings of the study indicate that, of the families who actually spend money on their children’s education, it is the low-income households that use a higher share of their household budget for this purpose— this applies both to overall expenditure and to spending on individual educational services. However, if we consider all family households in Germany, higher-income families spend more on education, both in absolute and relative terms. Furthermore, it also holds true that the younger the children, the higher the share of the household’s income spent on education. More progressive fee scales could help reducing expenditure burdens of low-income family’s education inequalities, and support children to make full use of their educational potentials. Bildung ist nicht ausschließlich steuerfinanziert – für viele Angebote sind mindestens Zuzahlungen aus eigener Tasche nötig, so auch bei Bildungs- und Betreuungsangeboten für Kinder. Die privaten Ausgaben von Haushalten für Bildungsangebote hängen maßgeblich von den Ressourcen des jeweiligen Familienhaushalts ab. Wie dieser Zusammenhang im Detail aussieht, ist bislang allerdings wenig erforscht. Die vorliegende Studie des DIW Berlin, die auf Daten des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) und der Zusatzstichprobe Familien in Deutschland (FiD) für das Jahr 2012 basiert, analysiert die privaten Ausgaben für unterschiedliche Bildungsangebote wie Kindertageseinrichtungen, Privatschulen oder für non-formale Angebote, also Sportvereine oder Musikschulen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Familien, die tatsächlich Ausgaben für die Bildung ihrer Kinder tätigen, einen höheren Anteil ihres Haushaltseinkommens aufwenden, wenn sie sich im unteren Einkommensbereich befinden – dies gilt sowohl für die Gesamtausgaben als auch für die Ausgaben für einzelne Bildungsangebote. Betrachtet man hingegen alle Familienhaushalte in Deutschland, geben Familien mit höherem Einkommen absolut und auch relativ mehr für Bildung aus. Zudem gilt: Je jünger die Kinder, desto höher der Ausgabenanteil am Einkommen für Bildung. Sofern diese ungleiche Ausgabenbelastung abgemildert werden soll, um Bildungsungleichheiten zu reduzieren und Bildungspotentiale besser auszuschöpfen, ließe sich dies über progressivere Gebührenstaffelungen erreichen.

Suggested Citation

  • Carsten Schröder & C. Katharina Spieß & Johanna Storck, 2015. "Private Bildungsausgaben für Kinder: einkommensschwache Familien sind relativ stärker belastet," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 82(8), pages 158-169.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwob:82-8-3

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    Cited by:

    1. Cabane, Charlotte & Hille, Adrian & Lechner, Michael, 2015. "Mozart or Pelé? The effects of teenagers’ participation in music and sports," CEPR Discussion Papers 10556, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Stockhausen, Maximilian, 2016. "The Impact of Private and Public Childcare Provision on the Distribution of Children's Incomes in Germany," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145638, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Cabane, Charlotte & Hille, Adrian & Lechner, Michael, 2016. "Mozart or Pelé? The effects of adolescents' participation in music and sports," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 90-103.

    More about this item


    education; private expenditures; income distribution; costs for children;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D39 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Other
    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education


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