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Steigende EEG-Umlage: unerwünschte Verteilungseffekte können vermindert werden

Author

Listed:
  • Karsten Neuhoff
  • Stefan Bach
  • Jochen Diekmann
  • Martin Beznoska
  • Tarik El-Laboudy

Abstract

2013 will see a significant increase in the surcharge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and paid by power consumers to promote the use of renewable energies. This will equate to a rise in the share of private households' consumer spending on electricity from around 2.3 percent on average in 2011 or almost 2.4 percent in 2012 to almost 2.5 percent in 2013. The EEG surcharge accounts for 0.5 percentage points of this, or 0.6 percentage points including VAT. However, these proportions are significantly higher for low-income than for high-income households. DIW Berlin calculated the regressive distribution effects of rising electricity prices in general and the increasing EEG surcharge in particular on the basis of the Federal Statistical Office's sample survey of income and expenditure (EVS) and the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and extrapolated the results for 2013. The calculation indicates that households with the lowest income are especially adversely affected by the current price increases. To compensate for the social hardship of rising electricity prices for low-income households, the existing benefit systems could be adapted to anticipate price increases. At the same time, low-income households could be supported with tailored advice and financial assistance to enhance the efficiency of their electricity use and to ensure a lasting reduction of electricity expenditure. Another option would be to reduce the electricity tax for a basic volume of power consumption. Even if all three options were pursued in parallel, costs for public budgets are in line with revenue from VAT on the EEG surcharge, which is expected to increase to around 1.4 billion euros in 2013. Die EEG-Umlage, die Stromverbraucher für die Förderung von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien zahlen müssen, wird im Jahr 2013 stark steigen. Dadurch erhöht sich der Anteil der Ausgaben für Strom an den Konsumausgaben privater Haushalte von durchschnittlich rund 2,3 Prozent im Jahr 2011 und knapp 2,4 Prozent im Jahr 2012 auf knapp 2,5 Prozent im Jahr 2013. Davon entfallen 0,5 Prozentpunkte - einschließlich anteiliger Umsatzsteuer 0,6 Prozentpunkte - auf die EEG-Umlage. Allerdings sind diese Anteile für einkommensschwache Haushalte deutlich höher als für einkommensstarke Haushalte. Das DIW Berlin hat die regressiven Verteilungswirkungen von Strompreissteigerungen im Allgemeinen sowie der steigenden EEG-Umlage im Speziellen auf der Grundlage der Einkommens- und Verbrauchsstichprobe (EVS) des Statistischen Bundesamtes sowie des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels (SOEP) berechnet und für 2013 fortgeschrieben. Es zeigt sich, dass vor allem die Haushalte mit den niedrigsten Einkommen spürbar durch die aktuellen Preissteigerungen belastet werden. Wenn man soziale Härten steigender Strompreise für einkommensschwache Haushalte kompensieren will, sollten die bestehenden Transfersysteme, zum Beispiel zur Grundsicherung, angepasst werden. Zugleich sollte durch Beratung und Finanzhilfen gezielt die effizientere Verwendung von Strom in einkommensschwachen Haushalten gefördert werden, wodurch Stromausgaben dauerhaft gesenkt werden können. Außerdem könnte ein allgemeiner Grundfreibetrag bei der Stromsteuer eingeführt werden. Selbst wenn alle drei Maßnahmen zusammen umgesetzt würden, läge die Belastung der öffentlichen Haushalte in der gleichen Größenordnung wie das Aufkommen aus der anteiligen Umsatzsteuer auf die EEG-Umlage, das 2013 auf rund 1,4 Milliarden Euro steigt.

Suggested Citation

  • Karsten Neuhoff & Stefan Bach & Jochen Diekmann & Martin Beznoska & Tarik El-Laboudy, 2012. "Steigende EEG-Umlage: unerwünschte Verteilungseffekte können vermindert werden," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 79(41), pages 3-12.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwob:79-41-1
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    Cited by:

    1. Dr. Ulrike Lehr & Dr. Thomas Drosdowski, 2013. "Soziale Verteilungswirkungen der EEG-Umlage," GWS Discussion Paper Series 13-3, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    2. Dr. Jochen Dieckmann & Dr. Barbara? Breitschopf & Dr. Ulrike Lehr, 2016. "Social impacts of renewable energy in Germany – size, history and alleviation," GWS Discussion Paper Series 16-7, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    3. Peter Grösche & Carsten Schröder, 2014. "On the redistributive effects of Germany’s feed-in tariff," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 1339-1383, June.
    4. Dr. Jochen Diekmann (DIW Berlin) & Dr. Barbara Breitschopf (Fraunhofer ISI) & Dr. Ulrike Lehr, 2015. "Politische Optionen zur Verminderung von Verteilungswirkungen der EEG-Umlage," GWS Discussion Paper Series 15-18, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    5. Peter Haan & Martin Simmler, 2016. "Wind Electricity Subsidies = Windfall Gains for Land Owners? Evidence from Feed-In Tariff in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1568, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Peter Heindl, 2015. "Measuring Fuel Poverty: General Considerations and Application to German Household Data," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 71(2), pages 178-215, June.
    7. Dr. Ulrike Lehr & Dr. Thomas Drosdowski, 2015. "Soziale Verteilungswirkungen der EEG-Umlage unter Berücksichtigung von Einkommensklassen," GWS Discussion Paper Series 15-1, GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research.
    8. Jonas Frank & Jana Lippelt & Johannes Pfeiffer, 2012. "Kurz zum Klima: Die Energiewende und das energiepolitische Zieldreieck – Teil 2: Wirtschaftlichkeit und Bezahlbarkeit der Energieversorgung," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 65(23), pages 81-85, December.
    9. Schröder Carsten & Grösche Peter, 2015. "Plädoyer für einen Energiesoli," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 16(4), pages 367-378, December.
    10. Nadine Schreiner, 2015. "Auf der Suche nach Energiearmut: eine Potentialanalyse des Low-Income-High-Cost Indikators für Deutschland," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 811, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    11. Guenther-Lubbers, Welf & Theuvsen, Ludwig, 2014. "Regionalökonomische Effekte Der Niedersächsischen Biogasproduktion," 54th Annual Conference, Goettingen, Germany, September 17-19, 2014 187426, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
    12. Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas, 2015. "Social implications of green growth policies from the perspective of energy sector reform and its impact on households," CAWM Discussion Papers 81, University of Münster, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Distributional effects power prices; historic development of prices; . - compensation mechanisms; efficiency;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities

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