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What Happened to Fortress Europe?: External Trade Policy Liberalization in the European Union

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  • Hanson, Brian T.

Abstract

In an era when many fear the breakdown of the global trading order through the emergence of relatively closed regional trading blocs, assessing the effects of European integration on external European Union trade is particularly important. Surprisingly, despite a severe recession accompanied by record levels of unemployment, a history of increasing protection under similar economic circumstances, and alarming predictions about “fortress Europe,” external trade policy in the region has liberalized in recent years. Prominent trade policy explanations emphasizing changing interest group demands or changing ideas of policymakers are inadequate to account for this significant change in trade policy. Instead, much of this liberalization can be best understood as an unforeseen consequence of the Single European Act. Completing the single market undermined the effectiveness of national trade measures and made it difficult to enact new trade barriers, thus producing a liberal bias in European policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Hanson, Brian T., 1998. "What Happened to Fortress Europe?: External Trade Policy Liberalization in the European Union," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(01), pages 55-85, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:intorg:v:52:y:1998:i:01:p:55-85_44
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    Cited by:

    1. Cornelia Woll, 2009. "Who Captures Whom? Trade Policy Lobbying in the European Union," Post-Print hal-00972851, HAL.
    2. Olivier Cadot & Douglas Webber, 2001. "Banana Splits and Banana Slips:The European and Trans-Atlantic Politics of Bananas," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 3, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    3. repec:ucm:wpaper:05-06 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Eden, Lorraine & Molot, Maureen Appel, 2002. "Insiders, outsiders and host country bargains," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 359-388.
    5. Cornelia Woll, 2006. "Trade Policy Lobbying in the European Union: Who Captures Whom?," Sciences Po publications 06/7, Sciences Po.
    6. Nelson, Douglas, 2006. "The political economy of antidumping: A survey," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 554-590, September.
    7. Julia Schünemann, 2006. "Cooperación Interregional e Interregionalismo: Una Aproximación Socialconstructivista," Working Papers del Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales 0605, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales.
    8. Cornelia Woll, 2006. "Trade Policy Lobbying in the European Union: Who Captures Whom?," Working Papers hal-00972822, HAL.
    9. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/8601 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Alasdair R. Young, 2001. "Extending European Cooperation: The European Union and the 'New' International Trade Agenda," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 12, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    11. Cornelia Woll, 2009. "Who Captures Whom? Trade Policy Lobbying in the European Union," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/f5vtl5h9a73, Sciences Po.
    12. Silvia Console Battilana, 2007. "Uncovered Power: External Agenda Setting, Sophisticated Voting, and Transnational Lobbying," CESifo Working Paper Series 2138, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. Paola Conconi, 2009. "The EU Common Commercial Policy and Global/Regional Trade Regulation," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/13344, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

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