IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

H-O for H2O: Can the Heckscher-Ohlin Framework Explain the Role of Free Trade in Distributing Scarce Water Resources Around the Middle East?


  • Sayan Serdar

    (Bilkent University)


This paper aims to test econometrically the validity of Heckscher–Ohlin (H–O) theory within the context of export patterns of 11 relatively water abundant and relatively water-scarce countries located in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. For this purpose, the paper calculates the revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and net trade indices (NTI) for 13 sectors in each country and estimates the relationship between RCA values and water requirements of production in each sector. The results are then used to test whether parameter values estimated from this exercise can be linked to water endowments of the countries considered. By helping determine whether the countries in the sample act according to their comparative advantages, econometric results from this innovative application of H–O theory yield interesting policy conclusions.

Suggested Citation

  • Sayan Serdar, 2003. "H-O for H2O: Can the Heckscher-Ohlin Framework Explain the Role of Free Trade in Distributing Scarce Water Resources Around the Middle East?," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 1(3), pages 21-36, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:rmeecf:v:1:y:2003:i:3:n:2

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: For access to full text, subscription to the journal or payment for the individual article is required.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    2. Bowen, Harry P & Leamer, Edward E & Sveikauskas, Leo, 1987. "Multicountry, Multifactor Tests of the Factor Abundance Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 791-809, December.
    3. Balassa, Bela, 1979. "The Changing Pattern of Comparative Advantage in Manufactured Goods," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 61(2), pages 259-266, May.
    4. Hakimian Hassan, 2003. "Water Scarcity and Food Imports: An Emperical Investigation of the 'Virtual Water' Hypothesis in the MENA Region," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 70-84, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Iheb FRIJA, 2008. "La compétitivité de l'industrie d'habillement tunisienne. Atouts et limites (The tunisian clothing industry competitiveness : assets and limits)," Working Papers 200, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.
    2. repec:spr:endesu:v:19:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10668-016-9770-2 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bpj:rmeecf:v:1:y:2003:i:3:n:2. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peter Golla). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.