IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/worlde/v35y2012i6p694-712.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Productivity Premia for German Manufacturing Firms Exporting to the Euro-Area and Beyond: First Evidence from Robust Fixed Effects Estimations

Author

Listed:
  • Vincenzo Verardi
  • Joachim Wagner

Abstract

This paper makes three contributions. (1) It summarizes in tabular form a recent literature made of 36 micro-econometric studies for 16 different countries on the relationship between export destination and firm performance. (2) It reports estimates of the productivity premium of German firms exporting to the Euro-zone and beyond, controlling for unobserved time invariant firm specific effects, and tests for self-selection of more productive firms into exporting beyond the Euro-zone. (3) It corrects a serious flaw in hitherto published studies that ignore the potentially disastrous consequences of extreme observations, or outliers. The paper shows that estimates of the exporter productivity premium by destination are driven by a small share of outliers. Using a “clean” sample without outliers the estimated productivity premium of firms that export to the Euro-zone only is no longer much smaller that the premium of firms that export beyond the Euro-zone, too, and the premium itself over firms that serve the German market only is tiny. Furthermore, an ex-ante differential that is statistically significant and large only shows up for enterprises that exported to the Euro-zone already and start to export to countries outside the Euro-zone. These conclusions differ considerably from those based on non-robust standard regression analyses.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Vincenzo Verardi & Joachim Wagner, 2012. "Productivity Premia for German Manufacturing Firms Exporting to the Euro-Area and Beyond: First Evidence from Robust Fixed Effects Estimations," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(6), pages 694-712, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:35:y:2012:i:6:p:694-712
    DOI: j.1467-9701.2011.01414.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2011.01414.x
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/j.1467-9701.2011.01414.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2007. "Firms in International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 105-130, Summer.
    2. Eriksson, Tor & Smeets, Valérie & Warzynski, Frédéric, 2009. "Small Open Economy Firms in International Trade: Evidence from Danish Transactions-Level Data," Nationaløkonomisk tidsskrift, Nationaløkonomisk Forening, vol. 2009(1), pages 173-192.
    3. Lawless, Martina, 2009. "Firm export dynamics and the geography of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 245-254, April.
    4. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
    5. Jonathan Eaton, Marcela Eslava, Maurice Kugler,James Tybout, 1970. "Export Dynamics in Colombia: Firm-Level Evidence," Working Papers eg0036, Wilfrid Laurier University, Department of Economics, revised 1970.
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Exports and Productivity: A Survey of the Evidence from Firm Level Data," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 1, pages 3-41, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Elhanan Helpman, 2006. "Trade, FDI, and the Organization of Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 44(3), pages 589-630, September.
    8. Davide Castellani & Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2010. "Firms in International Trade: Importers’ and Exporters’ Heterogeneity in Italian Manufacturing Industry," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3), pages 424-457, March.
    9. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum & Francis Kramarz, 2011. "An Anatomy of International Trade: Evidence From French Firms," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(5), pages 1453-1498, September.
    10. Breinlich, Holger & Criscuolo, Chiara, 2011. "International trade in services: A portrait of importers and exporters," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 188-206, July.
    11. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    12. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum & Francis Kramarz, 2004. "Dissecting Trade: Firms, Industries, and Export Destinations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 150-154, May.
    13. Nicolas Berman & Philippe Martin & Thierry Mayer, 2009. "How do different exporters react to exchange rate changes? Theory, empirics and aggregate implications," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00973027, HAL.
    14. Gervais, Yvan & Bosco Sabuhoro, Jean, 2004. "Factors Determining the Success or Failure of Canadian Establishments on Foreign Markets: A Survival Analysis Approach," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2004220e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    15. Joachim Wagner, 2008. "A note on why more West than East German firms export," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 363-370, December.
    16. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley, 2008. "R&D and Exporting: A Comparison of British and Irish Firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 750-773, December.
    17. Wagner, Joachim, 2007. "Productivity and Size of the Export Market: Evidence for West and East German Plants, 2004," IZA Discussion Papers 2661, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Črt Kostevc, 2009. "Foreign Market Competition as a Determinant of Exporter Performance: Evidence from Slovenian Manufacturing Firms," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(6), pages 888-913, June.
    19. Buono, Ines & Fadinger, Harald & Berger, Stefan, 2008. "The Micro Dynamics of Exporting: Evidence from French Firms," MPRA Paper 12940, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Akerman, Anders & Forslid, Rikard, 2007. "Country Size, Trade, and Productivity: An Analysis of Heterogenous Firms and Differential Beachhead Costs," Research Papers in Economics 2007:14, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
    21. Naomitsu Yashiro & Daisuke Hirano, 2009. "Do All Exporters Benefit from Export Boom? -Evidence from Japan," KIER Working Papers 689, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    22. Richard Fabling & Arthur Grimes & Lynda Sanderson, 2012. "Whatever next? Export market choices of New Zealand firms," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 91(1), pages 137-159, March.
    23. Costas Arkolakis & Sharat Ganapati & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2021. "The Extensive Margin of Exporting Products: A Firm-Level Analysis," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 182-245, October.
    24. Gabor Bekes & Peter Harasztosi & Balazs Murakozy, 2009. "Firms and Products in International Trade: Data and Patterns for Hungary," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 0919, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    25. Jože P. Damijan & José De Sousa & Olivier Lamotte, 2009. "Does international openness affect the productivity of local firms?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(3), pages 559-586, July.
    26. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Michel Quere, 2008. "The U-Shaped Productivity Dynamics of French Exporters," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 636-659, December.
    27. Wagner Joachim, 2007. "Productivity and Size of the Export Market: Evidence for West and East German Plants, 2004," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 227(4), pages 403-408, August.
    28. Anja Malchin & Ramona Voshage, 2009. "Official Firm Data for Germany," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 129(3), pages 501-513.
    29. Ryuhei Wakasugi & Ayumu Tanaka, 2009. "Firm Heterogeneity and Different Modes of Internationalization: Evidence from Japanese Firms," KIER Working Papers 681, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    30. Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & Chad Syverson, 2008. "Reallocation, Firm Turnover, and Efficiency: Selection on Productivity or Profitability?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 394-425, March.
    31. David Greenaway & Richard Kneller, 2007. "Firm heterogeneity, exporting and foreign direct investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(517), pages 134-161, February.
    32. Hansson, Pär & Eliasson, Kent & Lindvert, Markus, 2009. "Do Firms Learn by Exporting or Learn to Export? Evidence from Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Swedish Manufacturing," Working Papers 2009:15, Örebro University, School of Business.
    33. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," Post-Print hal-03579844, HAL.
    34. Mirabelle Muûls & Mauro Pisu, 2009. "Imports and Exports at the Level of the Firm: Evidence from Belgium," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5), pages 692-734, May.
    35. Joze P. Damijan & Saso Polanec & Janez Prasnikar, 2004. "Self-selection, Export Market Heterogeneity and Productivity Improvements: Firm Level Evidence from Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 14804, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    36. Blanes-Cristóbal, José Vicente & Dovis, Marion & Milgram-Baleix, Juliette & Moro-Egido, Ana I., 2008. "Do sunk exporting costs differ among markets? Evidence from Spanish manufacturing firms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 110-112, November.
    37. De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
    38. Lionel Nesta & Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Michel Quéré, 2008. "The U-Shaped Productivity Dynamics of French Exporters," Post-Print hal-03417076, HAL.
    39. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/10221 is not listed on IDEAS
    40. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Peter K. Schott, 2009. "Importers, Exporters and Multinationals: A Portrait of Firms in the U.S. that Trade Goods," NBER Chapters, in: Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data, pages 513-552, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    41. Mark Doms & Eric J. Bartelsman, 2000. "Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 569-594, September.
    42. Jože P. Damijan & Črt Kostevc, 2006. "Learning-by-Exporting: Continuous Productivity Improvements or Capacity Utilization Effects? Evidence from Slovenian Firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 142(3), pages 599-614, October.
    43. Balazs Murakozy & Gabor Bekes, 2009. "Temporary Trade," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 0909, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    44. Vincenzo Verardi & Christophe Croux, 2009. "Robust regression in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(3), pages 439-453, September.
    45. Kalina Manova & Zhiwei Zhang, 2008. "China's exporters and importers: firms, products, and trade partners," Working Paper Series 2008-28, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    46. Giuliano Conti & Alessia Lo Turco & Daniela Maggioni, 2010. "Exporters in Services: new Evidence from Italian Firms," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 56(1), pages 73-98.
    47. Catherine Dehon & Marjorie Gassner & Vincenzo Verardi, 2009. "Beware of ‘Good’ Outliers and Overoptimistic Conclusions," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 71(3), pages 437-452, June.
    48. Martin Andersson & Hans Lööf & Sara Johansson, 2008. "Productivity and International Trade: Firm Level Evidence from a Small Open Economy," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 774-801, December.
    49. Timothy Dunne & J. Bradford Jensen & Mark J. Roberts, 2009. "Producer Dynamics: New Evidence from Micro Data," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number dunn05-1.
    50. Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2009. "Self-selection along different export and import markets," LEM Papers Series 2009/18, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    51. Flora Bellone & Patrick Musso & Lionel Nesta & Michel Quéré, 2008. "The U-shaped Productivity Dynamics of French Exporters," Post-Print halshs-00721048, HAL.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. René Belderbos & Vincent Van Roy & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2021. "Does trade participation limit domestic firms’ productivity gains from inward foreign direct investment?," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 11(1), pages 83-109, March.
    2. Neil Foster-McGregor & Anders Isaksson & Florian Kaulich, 2014. "Importing, exporting and performance in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 150(2), pages 309-336, May.
    3. Piotr Ciżkowicz & Michał Kowalczuk & Andrzej Rzońca, 2016. "Heterogeneous determinants of local unemployment in Poland," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(4), pages 487-519, October.
    4. Achim Schmillen, 2016. "The Exporter Wage Premium Reconsidered—Destinations, Distances and Linked Employer–Employee Data," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 531-546, May.
    5. Joachim Wagner & Yama Temouri, 2021. "Do Outliers and Unobserved Heterogeneity Explain the Exporter Productivity Premium? Evidence from France, Germany and the United Kingdom," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Joachim Wagner (ed.), MICROECONOMETRIC STUDIES OF FIRMS’ IMPORTS AND EXPORTS Advanced Methods of Analysis and Evidence from German Enterprises, chapter 13, pages 223-236, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "From Estimation Results to Stylized Facts: Twelve Recommendations for Empirical Research in International Activities of Heterogeneous Firms," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 15, pages 479-514, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Ledóchowski, Michał & Żuk, Piotr, 2022. "What drives portfolio capital inflows into emerging market economies? The role of the Fed's and ECB's balance sheet policies," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(PB).
    8. Juan Barboni & Nicolas Ferrari & Hanna Melgarejo & Adriana Peluffo, 2012. "Exports and Productivity: Does Destination Matter?," Revista de Economía y Estadística, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Instituto de Economía y Finanzas, vol. 50(1), pages 25-58, December.
    9. Sánchez, Patricio & Gallego, Elena & Rivero, Dolores & Lago-Peñas, Santiago, 2014. "El impacto de la internacionalización sobre las empresas: Evidencia empírica para el caso español [The impact of internationalization on firms: Empirical evidence for the Spanish case]," MPRA Paper 54602, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Fernanda Ricotta, 2016. "Productivity Differences By Export Destination," Working Papers 201601, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.
    11. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "International Trade and Firm Performance: A Survey of Empirical Studies since 2006," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 2, pages 43-87, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Wagner Joachim, 2018. "Active on Many Foreign Markets: A Portrait of German Multi-market Exporters and Importers from Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 238(2), pages 157-182, April.
    13. Irene Bertschek & Jan Hogrefe & Fabienne Rasel, 2015. "Trade and technology: new evidence on the productivity sorting of firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 151(1), pages 53-72, February.
    14. Joachim Wagner, 2015. "New Methods for the Analysis of Links between International Firm Activities and Firm Performance: A Practitioner's Guide," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 704-715, April.
    15. Biewen, Martin & Weiser, Constantin, 2011. "A New Approach to Testing Marginal Productivity Theory," IZA Discussion Papers 6113, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Jerzy Cieślik & Eugene Kaciak & Dianne Welsh, 2012. "The impact of geographic diversification on export performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 70-93, March.
    17. Alexander Vogel & Joachim Wagner, 2021. "Robust Estimates of Exporter Productivity Premia in German Business Services Enterprises," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Joachim Wagner (ed.), MICROECONOMETRIC STUDIES OF FIRMS’ IMPORTS AND EXPORTS Advanced Methods of Analysis and Evidence from German Enterprises, chapter 14, pages 239-263, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. Joachim Wagner, 2018. "Germany’s trade in goods," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer;Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft - German Statistical Society, vol. 12(1), pages 69-82, April.
    19. Michał Ledóchowski & Piotr Żuk, 2020. "What drives portfolio capital inflows into emerging market economies? The role of the Fed’s and ECB’s balance sheet policies," NBP Working Papers 333, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "International Trade and Firm Performance: A Survey of Empirical Studies since 2006," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 2, pages 43-87, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 215-225, February.
    3. Shevtsova, Yevgeniya, 2015. "International Trade and Productivity: The Role of Industry and Export Destination," MPRA Paper 69793, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Valeria Gattai & Giorgia Sali, 2016. "FDI and heterogeneous performance of European enterprises," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 43(1), pages 25-65, March.
    5. Carlo Reggiani & Yevgeniya Shevtsova, 2018. "Trade and Productivity in a Transition Economy: the Role of Industry and Export Destination," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 395-428, September.
    6. Armando Silva & Oscar Afonso & Ana Africano, 2013. "Economic performance and international trade engagement: the case of Portuguese manufacturing firms," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 521-547, December.
    7. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Trading Many Goods with Many Countries: Exporters and Importers from German Manufacturing Industries," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 14, pages 455-476, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Stefanie A. Haller, 2012. "Intra‐firm trade, exporting, importing, and firm performance," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(4), pages 1397-1430, November.
    9. Rosario Crinò & Paolo Epifani, 2009. "Productivity, Quality and Export Behavior (Revised version of: Firm-Export Intensity and Productivity, September 2011)," Development Working Papers 271, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    10. João Amador & Luca Opromolla, 2013. "Product and destination mix in export markets," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(1), pages 23-53, March.
    11. David Aristei & Davide Castellani & Chiara Franco, 2013. "Firms’ exporting and importing activities: is there a two-way relationship?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 149(1), pages 55-84, March.
    12. Rudy Douven & Remco Mocking & Ilaria Mosca, 2012. "The Effect of Physician Fees and Density Differences on Regional Variation in Hospital Treatments," CPB Discussion Paper 208.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    13. Melitz, Marc J. & Redding, Stephen J., 2014. "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 1-54, Elsevier.
    14. Eleonora Fichera & Yevgeniya Shevtsova, 2020. "Sunk exporting costs and export market coverage," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 88(4), pages 599-616, July.
    15. Ariu, Andrea, 2012. "Services Versus Goods Trade: Are They The Same?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9036, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Arjan Lejour, 2008. "The Principle of Subsidiarity and Innovation Support Measures," CPB Memorandum 208.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    17. Roger Smeets & Harold Creusen & Arjan Lejour & Henk Kox, 2010. "Export margins and export barriers: uncovering market entry costs of exporters in the Netherlands," CPB Document 208.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    18. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2018. "Global Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 56(2), pages 565-619, June.
    19. repec:spr:weltar:v:144:y:2008:i:4:p:596-635 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Békés, Gábor & Muraközy, Balázs, 2012. "Temporary trade and heterogeneous firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 232-246.
    21. Valeria Gattai, 2015. "Internationalisation and performance at the firm-level: what we learn from Italy," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 42(4), pages 475-509, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • C87 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Econometric Software

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:35:y:2012:i:6:p:694-712. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0378-5920 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0378-5920 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.