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From beer to crack: Developmental patterns of drug involvement


  • Kandel, D.
  • Yamaguchi, K.


Objectives. Prior research has identified developmental stages in drug use in adolescence, from substances that are legal for adults to illicit drugs. The position of crack in patterns of drug involvement remains to be established. Methods. The analyses are based on a sample (n = 1108) representative of 12th graders attending New York State public and private schools. From reported ages of first use of five classes of drugs (alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine but not crack, crack), alternate models of progression were tested for their goodness of fit through log- linear models. Results. The sequence involves at the earliest stage the use of at least one licit drug, alcohol or cigarettes. Subsequent stages involve marijuana and cocaine; crack is the last drug in the sequence. The results confirm the more important role of alcohol among males and cigarettes among females in the progression into various drug classes. Age of first drug use at a lower stage is a strong predictor of further progression. Conclusions. The developmental pattern of drug involvement identified in the early 1970s still characterizes adolescent pathways of drug involvement in the late 1980s.

Suggested Citation

  • Kandel, D. & Yamaguchi, K., 1993. "From beer to crack: Developmental patterns of drug involvement," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 83(6), pages 851-855.
  • Handle: RePEc:aph:ajpbhl:1993:83:6:851-855_8

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    Cited by:

    1. Jeff DeSimone, 2002. "Illegal Drug Use and Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(4), pages 952-977, October.
    2. Ka Yan Ho & Ho Cheung William Li & Katherine Ka Wai Lam & Sophia Siu Chee Chan & Man Ping Wang & Vivian Wai Fung Chan & Viveka Wei Xia & Tai Hing Lam, 2018. "Exploratory study on the relationship between smoking and other risk behaviours among young smokers," Journal of Clinical Nursing, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(13-14), pages 2859-2867, July.
    3. Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, 1998. "Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Consumption: Is There Really a Gateway Effect?," NBER Working Papers 6348, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Farrelly, Matthew C. & Bray, Jeremy W. & Zarkin, Gary A. & Wendling, Brett W., 2001. "The joint demand for cigarettes and marijuana: evidence from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 51-68, January.
    5. J. Williams & Rosalie Liccardo Pacula & Frank J. Chaloupka & Henry Wechsler, 2004. "Alcohol and marijuana use among college students: economic complements or substitutes?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(9), pages 825-843, September.
    6. Thompson Alexi & Koichi Yamaura, 2017. "Does Previous Marijuana Use Increase the Use of Other Drugs: An Almost Ideal Demand System Approach," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 17(3), pages 1-6, July.
    7. Wu, Xuedong & Colson, Gregory & Shonkwiler, J. Scott, 2013. "Factors that Influence the Frequency and Quantity of Tobacco Use Among U.S. Youth," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149797, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    8. Farrokh Alemi & Manaf Zargoush & Jee Vang, 2017. "Using observed sequence to orient causal networks," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 590-599, December.
    9. Jeff DeSimone & Matthew C. Farrelly, 2003. "Price and Enforcement Effects on Cocaine and Marijuana Demand," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 41(1), pages 98-115, January.
    10. Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, 1997. "Letter: Economic modelling of the gateway effect," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(5), pages 521-524, September.
    11. Jeffrey DeSimone, 1999. "Illegal Drug Use and Labor Supply," Working Papers 9906, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.
    12. Tetsuji Yamada & Michael Kendix & Tadashi Yamada, 1996. "The impact of alcohol consumption and marijuana use on high school graduation," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(1), pages 77-92, January.
    13. Tetsuji Yamada & Michael Kendix & Tadashi Yamada, 1993. "The Impact of Alcohol Consumption and Marijuana Use on High School Graduation," NBER Working Papers 4497, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Frank J. Chaloupka & Rosalie Liccardo Pacula & Matthew C. Farrelly & Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, 1999. "Do Higher Cigarette Prices Encourage Youth to Use Marijuana?," NBER Working Papers 6939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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