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Die Bedeutung des Berufs für die Dauer von Erwerbsunterbrechungen


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  • Stuth, Stefan
  • Hennig, Marina
  • Allmendinger, Jutta
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    Die meisten Studien zur Rückkehr von Frauen in das Erwerbsleben nach einer Erwerbsunterbrechung konzentrieren sich in ihren Untersuchungen auf die Wirkung individueller und partnerschaftlicher Merkmale oder die Notwendigkeit einer regionalen Betreuungsinfrastruktur. Obwohl der Beruf in Deutschland mehr als in anderen Ländern das ganze Erwerbsleben prägt, wurde er als Einflussfaktor auf die Dauer von Erwerbsunterbrechung kaum berücksichtigt. Auf diesem Defizit aufbauend, analysieren wir mit Hilfe der theoretischen Annahmen des akteurzentrierten Institutionalismus von Scharpf (2000) die Wirkung unterschiedlicher beruflicher Bedingungen, auf die Dauer von Erwerbsunterbrechungen für nichterwerbstätige Frauen. Mit den Daten des Mikrozensus 2006 wurde für 111 Berufe untersucht, ob und inwiefern sich die damit einhergehenden Arbeitsbedingungen und Anforderungen verlängernd oder verkürzend auf die Erwerbsunterbrechungen auswirken. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Bedingungen unter denen Frauen einen Beruf ausüben je nach Beruf in sehr unterschiedlicher Weise die Dauer der Erwerbsunterbrechung beeinflussen. So gibt es lange Erwerbspausen in Berufen mit Arbeitszeiten die häufig über 46 Wochenstunden (Friseurinnen) liegen oder in Berufen, deren Arbeitsalltag monoton und vorwiegend fremdbestimmt oder körperlich anstrengend ist (Köchinnen). Umgekehrt kehren Frauen in Berufen mit flexiblen, selbstbestimmten Arbeitszeiten, wie bei der Wochenend- und Feiertagsarbeit (Restaurantfachfrauen), schneller ins Erwerbsleben zurück. -- Most studies of the re-entry of women into the labour market focus on the impact of individual characteristics as well as on the role of partnership and regional childcare opportunities. Even though Germans typically and for their entire career stick with the type of job that they originally train for, the importance of a woman’s education or job training are typically not taken into account for predicting the duration of leave from the labor market, such as being unemployed and/ or a house wives. We address this lack of research by analyzing the influence of different job characteristics on the duration of leave. Our research is theoretically based on the actor-centered institutionalism by Scharpf (2000). We used the German micro-census data for the year of 2006, from which we identified 111 different occupations along with their conditions and requirements. These data allowed us to examine the impact of occupations on the extension or reducing of leave. Our results indicate that every occupation implies a set of preconditions which affect women in different ways in the duration of their career breaks. The observed effect of occupations depends on the specific characteristics of the last occupation that the women had. We found out that working rather long hours (46 or more per week, e.g. for hairdressers) at the last job increases the duration of career breaks. The same result occurs for monotonous, heteronomous, and physically demanding jobs such as chefs. The opposite effect seems to be in place for occupations which imply work on Sundays and public holidays, e.g. waiters. These jobs allow for flexible and self-determined work schedules and tend to lead to in shorter leave.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Presidential Department with number P 2009-001.

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    Date of creation: 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbpre:p2009001

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    1. Bernd Fitzenberger & Alexandra Spitz, 2004. "Die Anatomie des Berufswechsels : eine empirische Bestandsaufnahme auf Basis der BIBB/IAB-Daten 1998/1999," Working Papers of the Research Group Heterogenous Labor 04-02, Research Group Heterogeneous Labor, University of Konstanz/ZEW Mannheim.
    2. Matthes, Britta & Burkert, Carola & Biersack, Wolfgang, 2008. "Berufssegmente: Eine empirisch fundierte Neuabgrenzung vergleichbarer beruflicher Einheiten," IAB Discussion Paper 200835, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    3. Christina Gathmann & Uta Schönberg, 2010. "How General Is Human Capital? A Task-Based Approach," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(1), pages 1-49, 01.
    4. O Blanchard & A Landier, 2002. "The Perverse Effects of Partial Labour Market Reform: fixed--Term Contracts in France," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(480), pages F214-F244, June.
    5. Elaine Sorensen, 1990. "The Crowding Hypothesis and Comparable Worth," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(1), pages 55-89.
    6. Velling, Johannes & Bender, Stefan, 1994. "Berufliche Mobilität zur Anpassung struktureller Diskrepanzen am Arbeitsmarkt," ZEW Discussion Papers 94-19, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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