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Causation Delays and Causal Neutralization for General Horizons: The Money-Output Relationship Revisited

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  • Jonathan B. Hill

    (Florida International University)

Abstract

In this paper, we develop a parametric test procedure for multiple horizon "Granger" causality and apply the procedure to the well established problem of determining causal patterns in aggregate monthly U.S. money and output. As opposed to most papers in the parametric causality literature, we are interested in whether money ever "causes" (can ever be used to forecast) output, when causation occurs, and how (through which causal chains). Our tests are based on new recursive parametric characterizations of causality chains which help to distinguish between mere noncausation (the total absence of indirect causal routes) and causal neutralization, in which several causal routes exists that cancel each other out such that noncausation occurs. In many cases the recursive characterizations imply greatly simplified linear compound hypotheses for multi-step ahead causation, and permit Wald tests with the usual asymptotic ÷²-distribution. A simulation study demonstrates that a sequential test method does not generate the type of size distortions typically reported in the literature, and null rejection frequencies depend entirely on how we define the "null hypothesis" of non-causality (at which horizon, if any). Using monthly data employed in Stock and Watson (1989), and others, we demonstrate that while Friedman and Kuttner's (1993) result that detrended money growth fails to cause output one month ahead continues into the third quarter of 2003, a significant causal lag may exist through a variety of short-term interest rates: money appears to cause output after at least one month passes, although in some cases using recent data conflicting evidence suggests money may never cause output and be truly irrelevant in matters of real decisions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Econometrics with number 0402002.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: 05 Feb 2004
Date of revision: 01 Mar 2004
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:0402002

Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on WinXP; pages: 40
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Web page: http://128.118.178.162

Related research

Keywords: multiple horizon causation; multivariate time series; sequential tests;

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References

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  1. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
  2. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
  3. Friedman, Benjamin M & Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1992. "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 472-92, June.
  4. Rothman, Philip & van Dijk, Dick & null, Philip Hans, 2001. "Multivariate Star Analysis Of Money Output Relationship," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(04), pages 506-532, September.
  5. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
  6. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
  7. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & PELLETIER, Denis & RENAULT, Éric, 2003. "Short Run and Long Run Causality in Time Series : Inference," Cahiers de recherche 14-2003, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  8. Swanson, Norman R., 1998. "Money and output viewed through a rolling window," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 455-474, May.
  9. Benjamin M. Friedman & Kenneth N. Kuttner, 1990. "Another look at the evidence on money-income casualty," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 90-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  10. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Long memory relationships and the aggregation of dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 227-238, October.
  11. Dufour, J.M. & Renault, E., 1995. "Short-Run and Long-Rub Causality in Time Series: Theory," Cahiers de recherche 9538, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  12. Feige, Edgar L & Pearce, Douglas K, 1979. "The Casual Causal Relationship between Money and Income: Some Caveats for Time Series Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 61(4), pages 521-33, November.
  13. Renault, E. & Szafarz, A., 1991. "True Versus Spurious Instantaneous Causality," Papers 9103, Universite Libre de Bruxelles - C.E.M.E..
  14. Lütkepohl, Helmut & POSKITT, D.S., 1996. "Testing for Causation Using Infinite Order Vector Autoregressive Processes," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(01), pages 61-87, March.
  15. repec:cup:macdyn:v:5:y:2001:i:4:p:506-32 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Tessier, David, 1993. "On the relationship between impulse response analysis, innovation accounting and Granger causality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 327-333.
  17. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1987. "Interpreting Evidence on Money-Income Causality," NBER Working Papers 2228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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