Big BRICs, Weak Foundations: The Beginning of Public Elementary Education in Brazil, Russia, India, and China
AbstractOur paper provides a comparative perspective on the development of public primary education in four of the largest developing economies circa 1910: Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC). These four countries encompassed more than 50 percent of the world’s population in 1910, but remarkably few of their citizens attended any school by the early 20th century. We present new, comparable data on school inputs and outputs for BRIC drawn from contemporary surveys and government documents. Recent studies emphasize the importance of political decentralization, and relatively broad political voice for the early spread of public primary education in developed economies. We identify the former and the lack of the latter to be important in the context of BRIC, but we also outline how other factors such as factor endowments, colonialism, serfdom, and, especially, the characteristics of the political and economic elite help explain the low achievement levels of these four countries and the incredible amount of heterogeneity within each of them.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, Williams College in its series Department of Economics Working Papers with number 2011-06.
Length: 57 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2011
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Chaudhary, Latika & Musacchio, Aldo & Nafziger, Steven & Yan, Se, 2012. "Big BRICs, weak foundations: The beginning of public elementary education in Brazil, Russia, India, and China," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 221-240.
- Latika Chaudhary & Aldo Musacchio & Steven Nafziger & Se Yan, 2012. "Big BRICs, Weak Foundations: The Beginning of Public Elementary Education in Brazil, Russia, India, and China," NBER Working Papers 17852, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- N30 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - General, International, or Comparative
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance
- I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-07-13 (All new papers)
- NEP-CIS-2011-07-13 (Confederation of Independent States)
- NEP-HIS-2011-07-13 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-LAB-2011-07-13 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-TRA-2011-07-13 (Transition Economics)
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- Harrison, Mark & Markevich, Andrei, 2012. "Russia’s Home Front, 1914-1922: The Economy," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 73, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
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