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Does globalization hurt the poor?

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  • Agenor, Pierre-Richard

Abstract

Ag?or attempts to examine analytically and empirically the extent to which globalization affects the poor in low- and middle-income countries. He begins with a description of various channels through which trade openness and financial integration may have an adverse effect on poverty. However, the author also stresses the possible nonlinearities involved-possibilities that have seldom been recognized in the ongoing debate. Ag?or then presents cross-country regressions that relate measures of real and financial integration to poverty. The regressions control for changes in income per capita and output growth rates, as well as various other macroeconomic and structural variables, such as the inflation tax, changes in the real exchange rate and the terms of trade, health and schooling indicators, and macroeconomic volatility. The author uses not only individual indicators of trade and financial openness but also a"globalization index"based on principal components analysis, and tests for both linear and nonlinear effects. The results suggest the existence of a nonmonotonic, Laffer-type relationship between globalization and poverty. At low levels, globalization appears to hurt the poor; but beyond a certain threshold, it seems to reduce poverty-possibly because it brings with it renewed impetus for reform. So, globalization may hurt the poor not because it went too far, but rather because it did not go far enough.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2922.

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Date of creation: 31 Oct 2002
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2922

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Keywords: Banks&Banking Reform; Economic Theory&Research; Labor Policies; Environmental Economics&Policies; Fiscal&Monetary Policy; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Achieving Shared Growth; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Banks&Banking Reform;

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References

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  1. Beyer, Harald & Rojas, Patricio & Vergara, Rodrigo, 1999. "Trade liberalization and wage inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 103-123, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Mete FERIDUN & Janet O. OLUSI & Benjamin Ayodele FOLORUNSO, 2006. "Analyzing The Impact Of Globalization On Economic Development In Developing Economies: An Application Of Error Correction Modelling (Ecm)To Nigeria," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 6(3).
  2. Nissanke, Machiko & Thorbecke, Erik, 2006. "Channels and policy debate in the globalization-inequality-poverty nexus," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1338-1360, August.
  3. Liang, Zhicheng, 2006. "Threshold Estimation on the Globalization-Poverty Nexus: Evidence from China," Working Paper Series RP2006/57, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  4. Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Sattar, Rashid, 2010. "Trade, Growth and Povety: A Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 20904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Bigsten, Arne, 2006. "Aid and Economic Development in Africa," Working Papers in Economics 237, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  6. Epo, Boniface Ngah & Abiala, Mireille Ambiana & Maimo, Clovis Wendji & Choub, Péguy Christophe Faha, 2010. "Globalization, Institutions, Asset Endowments and Poverty Reduction Outcomes in Africa within the Context of the Financial Crisis: Establishing a Transmission Mechanisms," MPRA Paper 20655, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Duasa, Jarita, 2008. "Income convergence of divergence? Study on selected Muslim countries," MPRA Paper 11563, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Ronald Hill & Justine Rapp, 2009. "Globalization and Poverty: Oxymoron or New Possibilities?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 85(1), pages 39-47, February.
  9. Emma Aisbett, 2005. "Why are the Critics so Convinced that Globalization is Bad for the Poor?," NBER Working Papers 11066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Ann Harrison, 2007. "Globalization and Poverty," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number harr06-1.
  11. Biswa N. Bhattacharyay, 2009. "Towards a Macroprudential Surveillance and Remedial Policy Formulation System for Monitoring Financial Crisis," CESifo Working Paper Series 2803, CESifo Group Munich.

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