The freeze-out bond exchange offer. An experimental approach
AbstractA freeze-out bond exchange offer can occur when a firm wants to replace an exist- ing bond, issued with a covenant, with a new bond that does not have this type of restriction. If the bondholders are not fully coordinated, the shareholders can make the exchange offer unfair to capture wealth from the bondholders. We perform two experiments using the freeze-out game proposed by Oldfield (2004) to isolate (i) the level of information in the exchange offer and (ii) the role of the experience of the bondholders. The results are statistically significant. In the first experiment, they show that experience is a dominant factor with respect to information. Conversely, in the second experiment, the information becomes dominant with respect to expe- rience. The percentages of the choices for the symmetric Nash equilibria are greater in the first experiment. However, in the second experiment, the choices of the asymmetric Nash equilibrium, which is Pareto superior in the game, are greater than in the first experiment. These results have policy implications that may affect exchange offers in the bond market.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Cognitive and Experimental Economics Laboratory, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia in its series CEEL Working Papers with number 1204.
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
freeze-out; covenant; bond; experimental finance;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
- C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-10-20 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBE-2012-10-20 (Cognitive & Behavioural Economics)
- NEP-EXP-2012-10-20 (Experimental Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Arturo Bris & Ivo Welch, 2005.
"The Optimal Concentration of Creditors,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2193-2212, October.
- Ivo Welch & Arturo Bris, 2001. "The Optimal Concentration of Creditors," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm248, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2004.
- Ivo Welch & Bris, Arturo, 2001. "The Optimal Concentration of Creditors," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1338, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jan 2002.
- Arturo Bris & Ivo Welch, 2001. "The Optimal Concentration of Creditors," NBER Working Papers 8652, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Daniels, Kenneth & Ramirez, Gabriel G., 2007. "Debt restructurings, holdouts, and exit consents," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 1-17, April.
- de Jong, Abe & Roosenboom, Peter & Schramade, Willem, 2009. "Who benefits from bond tender offers in Europe?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 355-369, December.
- HEGE, Ulrich & MELLA-BARRAL, Pierre, 2002.
"Repeated dilution of diffusely held debt,"
Les Cahiers de Recherche
751, HEC Paris.
- Paul Mather & Graham Peirson, 2006. "Financial covenants in the markets for public and private debt," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 46(2), pages 285-307.
- Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2008.
"One Share - One Vote: the Theory,"
Review of Finance,
European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 1-49.
- Stefano Demichelis & Jörgen W. Weibull, 2007.
"Language, meaning and games: a model of communication, coordination and evolution,"
Carlo Alberto Notebooks
61, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
- Stefano Demichelis & Jorgen W. Weibull, 2008. "Language, Meaning, and Games: A Model of Communication, Coordination, and Evolution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1292-1311, September.
- Stefano Demichelis & Jörgen Weibull, 2009. "Language, meaning and games A model of communication, coordination and evolution," Working Papers hal-00354224, HAL.
- Mann, Steven V. & Powers, Eric A., 2007. "Determinants of bond tender premiums and the percentage tendered," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 547-566, March.
- Flavio Bazzana & Marco Palmieri, 2012. "How to increase the efficiency of bond covenants: a proposal for the Italian corporate market," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 327-346, October.
- Kim, Yong-Gwan & Sobel, Joel, 1995.
"An Evolutionary Approach to Pre-play Communication,"
Econometric Society, vol. 63(5), pages 1181-93, September.
- Kim, Y.G. & Sobel, J., 1993. "An Evolutionary Approach to Pre-Play Communication," Working Papers 93-02, University of Iowa, Department of Economics.
- Yakov Amihud & Kenneth Garbade & Marcel Kahan, 2000. "An Institutional Innovation To Reduce The Agency Costs Of Public Corporate Bonds," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 13(1), pages 114-121.
- Y. G. Kim & J. Sobel, 2010. "An Evolutionary Approach to Pre-play Communication," Levine's Working Paper Archive 374, David K. Levine.
- Bates, Thomas W. & Lemmon, Michael L. & Linck, James S., 2006. "Shareholder wealth effects and bid negotiation in freeze-out deals: Are minority shareholders left out in the cold?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(3), pages 681-708, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marco Tecilla).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.