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Pigskin, Tailgating and Pollution: Estimating the Environmental Impacts of Sporting Events

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  • Rhodes, M. Taylor

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    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

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    Abstract

    This paper estimates the environmental impact of sporting events by analyzing a collection of small typically geographically isolated cities which host at least one NCAA football team that competes in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) in 2010. Fixed-effects regressions controlling for differences across cities and across months suggest that cities do experience an increase in pollution levels on and around game days relative to non-game days. These marginal increases were largest in November even after controlling for weather, various trends and other sources of seasonality. When hosting games in November, the corresponding percent increases in daily mortality ranged from .06 to .25% for cardiovascular mortality to .23 to .47% for respiratory mortality.

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    File URL: http://bae.uncg.edu/assets/research/econwp/2013/13-19.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 13-19.

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    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: 23 Oct 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_019

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    Postal: Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402-6165
    Phone: (336) 334-5463
    Fax: (336) 334-4089
    Web page: http://www.uncg.edu/bae/econ/
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    Keywords: Pollution; Environmental impact; Sporting events; Mortality;

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    1. Dennis Coates & Brad R. Humphreys, 1999. "The growth effects of sport franchises, stadia, and arenas," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 601-624.
    2. Jason M. Lindo & Isaac D. Swensen & Glen R. Waddell, 2012. "Are Big-Time Sports a Threat to Student Achievement?," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 254-74, October.
    3. Dennis Coates & Craig A Depken, 2009. "The Impact of College Football Games on Local Sales Tax Revenue: Evidence from Four Cities in Texas," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(4), pages 531-547.
    4. Garth Heutel & Christopher J. Ruhm, 2013. "Air Pollution and Procyclical Mortality," NBER Working Papers 18959, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991. "Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
    6. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad R. & Zimbalist, Andrew, 2006. "Compensating differentials and the social benefits of the NFL: A comment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 124-131, July.
    7. John Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2002. "A Note on the Local Economic Impact of Sports Expenditures," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 3(4), pages 361-366, November.
    8. John J. Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2000. "The Economics of Sports Facilities and Their Communities," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 95-114, Summer.
    9. Heutel, Garth, 2011. "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks," Working Papers 11-8, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    10. John Siegfried & Andrew Zimbalist, 2006. "The Economic Impact of Sports Facilities, Teams and Mega-Events," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 39(4), pages 420-427, December.
    11. Garth Heutel, 2011. "Online Appendix to "How Should Environmental Policy Respond to Business Cycles? Optimal Policy under Persistent Productivity Shocks"," Technical Appendices 10-62, Review of Economic Dynamics.
    12. Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-75, June.
    13. Michael L. Anderson, 2012. "The Benefits of College Athletic Success: An Application of the Propensity Score Design with Instrumental Variables," NBER Working Papers 18196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Dennis Coates & Craig A. Depken, II, 2011. "Mega-Events: Is Baylor Football to Waco What the Super Bowl is to Houston?," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 12(6), pages 599-620, December.
    15. Coates, Dennis & Humphreys, Brad R., 2003. "The effect of professional sports on earnings and employment in the services and retail sectors in US cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 175-198, March.
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