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Leveraging Entrepreneurship through Private Investments: Does Gender Matter?

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  • Gicheva, Dora

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Link, Albert N.

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

Abstract

Using project data from a random sample of Phase II research awards from the National Institutes of Health SBIR program, we estimate the relative probability that woman-owned firms are able to attract private investments to fund the transition of the technology developed under the sponsorship of the SBIR program to an innovation to enter the market. We find that womenowned firms are as much as 16 percentage points less likely to attract private investment dollars compared to male-owned firms, factors excluding the size of the SBIR award held constant. Women-owned firms that received larger awards performed substantially better. Although the SBIR program has a legislated directive to increase the participation of woman-owned firms in the program, our findings suggest that it might not be sufficient to overcome market perceptions about the profitability of such investments actually bringing a developed technology to market.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 11-21.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: 28 Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2011_021

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Web page: http://www.uncg.edu/bae/econ/
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Keywords: Innovation; Entrepreneurship; SBIR program; Venture capital; Gender discrimination;

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References

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  1. Robert Atkinson, 2010. "Commentary on Gregory Tassey’s “Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies”," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 334-338, June.
  2. Blanchflower, David G & Meyer, Bruce D, 1994. " A Longitudinal Analysis of the Young Self-Employed in Australia and the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-19, February.
  3. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
  4. Gregory Tassey, 2010. "Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 283-333, June.
  5. Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Clarysse, Bart & Binks, Martin, 2006. "University spin-out companies and venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-501, May.
  6. Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2009. "Private Investor Participation and Commercialization Rates for Government-sponsored Research and Development: Would a Prediction Market Improve the Performance of the SBIR Programme?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(302), pages 264-281, 04.
  7. Borghans Lex & Golsteyn Bart & Heckman James & Meijers Huub, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity Aversion," ROA Research Memorandum 005, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
  8. Roope Uusitalo, 2001. "Homo entreprenaurus?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(13), pages 1631-1638.
  9. Elizabeth Gatewood & Candida Brush & Nancy Carter & Patricia Greene & Myra Hart, 2009. "Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 129-144, February.
  10. Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A., 1991. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Economics Series Working Papers 99125, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  11. Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Arthur van Soest & Erik Wengstrom, 2011. "Heterogeneity in Risky Choice Behavior in a Broad Population," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 664-94, April.
  12. Bertoni, Fabio & Colombo, Massimo G. & Grilli, Luca, 2011. "Venture capital financing and the growth of high-tech start-ups: Disentangling treatment from selection effects," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1028-1043, September.
  13. S. Brana, 2013. "Microcredit: an answer to the gender problem in funding?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 87-100, January.
  14. Debbie Opstal, 2010. "Commentary on Gregory Tassey’s “Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies”," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 355-359, June.
  15. Christopher Hill, 2010. "Commentary on Gregory Tassey’s “Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies”," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 346-350, June.
  16. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  17. G. Swann, 2010. "Commentary on Gregory Tassey’s “Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies”," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 351-354, June.
  18. Robert Hébert & Albert Link, 2006. "The Entrepreneur as Innovator," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(5), pages 589-597, 09.
  19. Albert N. Link & John T. Scott, 2012. "Employment growth from public support of innovation in small firms," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(7), pages 655-678, October.
  20. Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2010. "Government as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 589-601, June.
  21. Claude Barfield, 2010. "Commentary on Gregory Tassey’s “Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies”," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 342-345, June.
  22. Link, Albert N. & Welsh, Dianne H. B., 2011. "From Laboratory to Market: On the Propensity of Young Inventors to Form a New Business," Working Papers 11-11, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  23. Renate Schubert, 1999. "Financial Decision-Making: Are Women Really More Risk-Averse?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 381-385, May.
  24. Robert Fairlie & Justin Marion, 2012. "Affirmative action programs and business ownership among minorities and women," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 319-339, September.
  25. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
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  27. Lex Borghans & Bart H.H. Golsteyn & James J. Heckman & Huub Meijers, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity," Working Papers 200903, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Women can help bridge the 'valley of death' in science innovation
    by Cathy Foley, President of Science and Technology Australia at CSIRO in The Conversation on 2014-02-19 19:26:37
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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Cited by:
  1. Tristan Boyer & Régis Blazy, 2014. "Born to be alive? The survival of innovative and non-innovative French micro-start-ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 669-683, April.
  2. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Private Investment to Support New Technologies: Quantifying Gender Differences," Working Papers 13-11, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  3. Bradley, Samantha R. & Gicheva, Dora & Hassell, Lydia & Link, Albert N., 2013. "Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies," Working Papers 13-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  4. Albert N. Link & Christopher J. Ruhm & Donald S. Siegel, 2012. "Private Equity and the Innovation Strategies of Entrepreneurial Firms: Empirical Evidence from the Small Business Innovation Research Program," NBER Working Papers 18297, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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