Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Gender Differences in Access to Private Investment Funding to Support the Development of New Technologies

Contents:

Author Info

  • Bradley, Samantha R.

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Gicheva, Dora

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Hassell, Lydia

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

  • Link, Albert N.

    ()
    (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)

Abstract

Our descriptive analysis of a random sample of businesses that received Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program awards shows that female-owned businesses are disadvantaged, compared to male-owned businesses, in their ability to attract alternative investment funding to commercialize their technology-based innovations. Differences in the probability of receiving such financial support are most evident in the West and Northeast Census region states. Respectively, in states in those regions female-owned businesses are 17 and 9 percentage points less likely to attract alternative investment funding.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://bae.uncg.edu/assets/research/econwp/2013/13-9.pdf
File Function: Full text
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 13-9.

as in new window
Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: 15 May 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_009

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402-6165
Phone: (336) 334-5463
Fax: (336) 334-4089
Web page: http://www.uncg.edu/bae/econ/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Technology;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Gundry, Lisa K. & Welsch, Harold P., 2001. "The ambitious entrepreneur: High growth strategies of women-owned enterprises," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 453-470, September.
  2. Blanchflower, D.G. & Oswald, A., 1991. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Economics Series Working Papers, University of Oxford, Department of Economics 99125, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  3. Albert Link & Dianne Welsh, 2013. "From laboratory to market: on the propensity of young inventors to form a new business," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 1-7, January.
  4. Borghans, Lex & Golsteyn, Bart H.H. & Heckman, James J. & Meijers, Huub, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity Aversion," IZA Discussion Papers 3985, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Lex Borghans & Bart H.H. Golsteyn & James J. Heckman & Huub Meijers, 2009. "Gender Differences in Risk Aversion and Ambiguity," Working Papers, Geary Institute, University College Dublin 200903, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
  6. Nancy Carter & Candida Brush & Patricia Greene & Elizabeth Gatewood & Myra Hart, 2003. "Women entrepreneurs who break through to equity financing: The influence of human, social and financial capital," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January.
  7. Bates, Timothy, 2002. "Restricted access to markets characterizes women-owned businesses," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 313-324, July.
  8. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2002. "Characteristics, Contracts, and Actions: Evidence from Venture Capitalist Analyses," NBER Working Papers 8764, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Sophie Brana, 2010. "Microcredit: an answer to the gender problem in funding?," Larefi Working Papers, Larefi, Université Bordeaux 4 1008, Larefi, Université Bordeaux 4.
  10. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  11. Tyzoon T. Tyebjee & Albert V. Bruno, 1984. "A Model of Venture Capitalist Investment Activity," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1051-1066, September.
  12. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
  13. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2011. "Gender and Competition," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 601-630, 09.
  14. Gaudecker, Hans-Martin von & van Soest, Arthur & Wengström, Erik, 2009. "Heterogeneity in Risky Choice Behaviour in a Broad Population," IZA Discussion Papers 4022, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Elizabeth Gatewood & Candida Brush & Nancy Carter & Patricia Greene & Myra Hart, 2009. "Diana: a symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 129-144, February.
  16. Thomas Dohmen & Armin Falk, 2011. "Performance Pay and Multidimensional Sorting: Productivity, Preferences, and Gender," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 556-90, April.
  17. Sexton, Donald L. & Bowman-Upton, Nancy, 1990. "Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 29-36, January.
  18. Becker-Blease, John R. & Sohl, Jeffrey E., 2007. "Do women-owned businesses have equal access to angel capital?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 503-521, July.
  19. Catherine C. Eckel & Philip J. Grossman, 2008. "Sex and Risk: Experimental Evidence," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series, Monash University, Department of Economics archive-09, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  20. Andrew Healy & Jennifer Pate, 2011. "Can Teams Help to Close the Gender Competition Gap?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 1192-1204, 09.
  21. Jeffrey E. Sohl & Laura Hill, 2007. "Women business angels: Insights from angel groups," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 207-222, March.
  22. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
  23. Blanchard, Lloyd & Zhao, Bo & Yinger, John, 2008. "Do lenders discriminate against minority and woman entrepreneurs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 467-497, March.
  24. Dora Gicheva & Albert Link, 2013. "Leveraging entrepreneurship through private investments: does gender matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 199-210, February.
  25. Henry Chen & Paul Gompers & Anna Kovner & Josh Lerner, 2009. "Buy Local? The Geography of Successful and Unsuccessful Venture Capital Expansion," NBER Working Papers 15102, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Fabio Bertoni & Annalisa Croce & Diego D'Adda, 2009. "Venture capital investments and patenting activity of high-tech start-ups: a micro-econometric firm-level analysis," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 307-326, November.
  27. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2010. "Explaining the Gender Gap in Math Test Scores: The Role of Competition," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 129-44, Spring.
  28. Sunden, Annika E & Surette, Brian J, 1998. "Gender Differences in the Allocation of Assets in Retirement Savings Plans," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 207-11, May.
  29. Barsky, Robert B, et al, 1997. "Preference Parameters and Behavioral Heterogeneity: An Experimental Approach in the Health and Retirement Study," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 112(2), pages 537-79, May.
  30. Renate Schubert, 1999. "Financial Decision-Making: Are Women Really More Risk-Averse?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 381-385, May.
  31. Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
  32. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, 02.
  33. Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon & Bernasek, Alexandra, 1998. "Are Women More Risk Averse?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(4), pages 620-30, October.
  34. David H. Hsu, 2004. "What Do Entrepreneurs Pay for Venture Capital Affiliation?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1805-1844, 08.
  35. Peter Zwan & Ingrid Verheul & A. Thurik, 2012. "The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 627-643, October.
  36. Dean A. Shepherd, 1999. "Venture Capitalists' Assessment of New Venture Survival," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 45(5), pages 621-632, May.
  37. Fay, Michael & Williams, Lesley, 1993. "Gender bias and the availability of business loans," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 363-376, July.
  38. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
  39. Holly Buttner, E., 1993. "Female entrepreneurs: How far have they come?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 59-65.
  40. Robert Fairlie & Justin Marion, 2012. "Affirmative action programs and business ownership among minorities and women," Small Business Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 319-339, September.
  41. Link, Albert N. & Scott, John T., 2010. "Government as entrepreneur: Evaluating the commercialization success of SBIR projects," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 589-601, June.
  42. Olga Shurchkov, 2012. "Under Pressure: Gender Differences In Output Quality And Quantity Under Competition And Time Constraints," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 10(5), pages 1189-1213, October.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:uncgec:2013_009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Garth Heutel).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.