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Transmission of World Food Prices to Domestic Market: The Ethiopian Case

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  • Kelbore, Zerihun Getachew

Abstract

This paper investigates the integration of the Ethiopian grain market to the world market; and within country grain markets integration. To this end, two cereal crop markets: wheat and maize, have been investigated. For maize the integration into the world market is analyzed using the US and SAFEX exchange markets as a world market; for wheat Paris and Chicago exchange markets are considered a wheat world market. The analysis has been conducted using a cointegration method: Johansen (1988) procedure. The results show that the Ethiopian grain market is integrated into the world market, albeit to the once geographically proximate to it. And further, we found that the elasticity of the price pass through between the world and domestic markets has appeared to be more than unitary when evaluated at the mean prices of the two food crops. The analysis of domestic market integration is conducted using principal component analysis (PCA). The result shows that both wheat and maize markets are fairly integrated. However, the results demonstrate that in wheat market, of the traditionally known deficit markets Mekelle has shown an improvement in integration as its mean prices and price variability appear to be in line with the central market, but the maize market result has preserved the deficit market status. In the other deficit market, Dire Dawa, the mean prices of wheat and maize appear to be higher and more volatile than the central market. The other most striking result is that despite huge infrastructural improvement markets further from the central market exhibit higher level of price volatility than markets within a 300km distance from the central market, Addis Ababa. It has also been observed that the price differential between the central market and other local markets has shown a declining trend over time, and found to be stationary. This implies that the markets are more likely to converge in the long run, provided the market infrastructure continues to develop so as to reduce market information asymmetry that we believe has contributed to differences in price differentials and price volatility across markets

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 49712.

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Date of creation: 06 Mar 2013
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:49712

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Keywords: world market; domestic market; Price transmission; market integration ; cointegration; PCA;

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  1. Christopher Gilbert & Wyn Morgan, 2010. "Has food price volatility risen?," Department of Economics Working Papers 1002, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  2. Asfaw Negassa & Robert J. Myers, 2007. "Estimating Policy Effects on Spatial Market Efficiency: An Extension to the Parity Bounds Model," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 338-352.
  3. Rashid, Shahidur, 2004. "Spatial integration of maize markets in post-liberalized Uganda," MTID discussion papers 71, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  4. Van Campenhout, Bjorn, 2007. "Modelling trends in food market integration: Method and an application to Tanzanian maize markets," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 112-127, February.
  5. John Baffes & Bruce Gardner, 2003. "The transmission of world commodity prices to domestic markets under policy reforms in developing countries," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 159-180.
  6. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  7. Rashid, Shahidur & Lemma, Solomon, 2011. "Strategic grain reserves in Ethiopia: Institutional design and operational performance," IFPRI discussion papers 01054, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. Abdulai, Awudu, 2000. "Spatial price transmission and asymmetry in the Ghanaian maize market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 327-349, December.
  9. Mundlak, Yair & Larson, Donald F, 1992. "On the Transmission of World Agricultural Prices," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(3), pages 399-422, September.
  10. Isard, Peter, 1977. "How Far Can We Push the "Law of One Price"?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 942-48, December.
  11. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  12. Morisset, Jacques, 1998. "Unfair Trade? The Increasing Gap between World and Domestic Prices in Commodity Markets during the Past 25 Years," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(3), pages 503-26, September.
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