Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Return enhancing, cash-rich or simply empire-building? An empirical investigation of corporate real estate holdings

Contents:

Author Info

  • Du, Julan
  • Leung, Charles Ka Yui
  • Chu, Derek

Abstract

No, we find no evidence for a return-enhancing role for corporate real estate holdings, which is consistent with the previous literature. Instead, our study based on a sample of U.S. listed corporations suggests that corporate real estate holdings are a form of managerial “empire building”. Corporations with weaker corporate governance and a lower degree of financial constraint tend to have higher real estate holdings, whereas higher real estate holdings are associated with lower returns to shareholders. The impact of corporate governance on corporate real estate holdings seems to be stronger in manufacturing-related industries. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/44253/
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 44253.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Feb 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44253

Contact details of provider:
Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: corporate real estate; empire-building; corporate governance; financial constraint;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Yan Dong & Charles Ka Yui Leung & Dongliang Cai, 2012. "What Drives Fixed Asset Holding and Risk- Adjusted Performance of Corporates in China? An Empirical Analysis," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 15(2), pages 141-164.
  2. John R. Graham & Campbell R. Harvey & Shiva Rajgopal, 2004. "The Economic Implications of Corporate Financial Reporting," NBER Working Papers 10550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Lang, Larry H. P. & Stulz, ReneM. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1991. "A test of the free cash flow hypothesis*1: The case of bidder returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 315-335, October.
  4. Gregory H. Chun & J. Sa-Aadu & James D. Shilling, 2004. "The Role of Real Estate in an Institutional Investor's Portfolio Revisited," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 295-320, November.
  5. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1840, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  6. Kim Hiang Liow, 2004. "Corporate Real Estate and Stock Market Performance," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 119-140, 07.
  7. Ambrose, Brent William, 1990. "Corporate Real Estate's Impact on the Takeover Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 307-22, December.
  8. Toni M. Whited, 1990. "Debt, liquidity constraints, and corporate investment: evidence from panel data," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 114, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Hanson, Robert C, 1992. "Tender Offers and Free Cash Flow: An Empirical Analysis," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 185-209, May.
  10. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1741, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  11. Rafael La porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert Vishny, 2002. "Investor Protection and Corporate Valuation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1147-1170, 06.
  12. Jensen, M.C. & Murphy, K.J., 1988. "Performance Pay And Top Management Incentives," Papers 88-04, Rochester, Business - Managerial Economics Research Center.
  13. Smith, C.W. & Watts, R.L., 1992. "The Investment Oppotunity set and Corporate Financing, Dividend and Compensation Policies," Papers 92-02, Rochester, Business - Financial Research and Policy Studies.
  14. Arnold L. Redman & John R. Tanner, 1991. "The Financing of Corporate Real Estate: A Survey," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(2), pages 217-240.
  15. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Scholarly Articles 3606237, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  16. Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G., 1989. "Private benefits from control of public corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 371-395, December.
  17. Yi Jin & Charles K.Y. Leung & Zhixiong Zeng, 2012. "Real Estate, the External Finance Premium and Business Investment: A Quantitative Dynamic General Equilibrium Analysis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 40(1), pages 167-195, 03.
  18. Jeffrey Gale & Fred Case, 1989. "A Study of Corporate Real Estate Resource Management," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 4(3), pages 23-34.
  19. Gillan, Stuart L., 2006. "Recent Developments in Corporate Governance: An Overview," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 381-402, June.
  20. Tim Opler & Lee Pinkowitz & René Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 2001. "Corporate Cash Holdings," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(1), pages 55-67.
  21. Black, Bernard S. & Jang, Hasung & Kim, Woochan, 2006. "Predicting firms' corporate governance choices: Evidence from Korea," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 660-691, June.
  22. Rosenstein, Stuart & Wyatt, Jeffrey G., 1997. "Inside directors, board effectiveness, and shareholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 229-250, May.
  23. Lynn M. Fisher, 2004. "The Wealth Effects of Sale and Leasebacks: New Evidence," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 619-643, December.
  24. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994. "What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," NBER Working Papers 4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1987. "One Share/One Vote and the Market for Corporate Control," NBER Working Papers 2347, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  27. Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1988. "The role of majority shareholders in publicly held corporations : An exploratory analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 317-346, January.
  28. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Agency Problems and Dividend Policies Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1839, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  29. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Brian J. Hall & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1997. "Are CEOs Really Paid Like Bureaucrats?," NBER Working Papers 6213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Peter R. Veale, 1989. "Managing Corporate Real Estate Assets: Current Executive Attitudes and Prospects for an Emergent Management Discipline," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 4(3), pages 1-22.
  32. Chen, Gongmeng & Firth, Michael & Gao, Daniel N. & Rui, Oliver M., 2006. "Ownership structure, corporate governance, and fraud: Evidence from China," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 424-448, June.
  33. Core, John E. & Guay, Wayne R., 2001. "Stock option plans for non-executive employees," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 253-287, August.
  34. Sharpe, Steven A. & Nguyen, Hien H., 1995. "Capital market imperfections and the incentive to lease," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 271-294.
  35. Ronald C. Rutherford & Hugh O. Nourse, 1988. "The Impact of Corporate Real Estate Unit Formation on the Parent Firm's Value," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(3), pages 73-84.
  36. John E. Core & Wayne R. Guay & David F. Larcker, 2003. "Executive equity compensation and incentives: a survey," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 27-50.
  37. Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 1993. "Working Capital and Fixed Investment: New Evidence on Financing Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 328-342, Autumn.
  38. Hugh O. Nourse, 1994. "Measuring Business Real Property Performance," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(4), pages 431-444.
  39. Sudip Datta, 2001. "Executive Compensation and Corporate Acquisition Decisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2299-2336, December.
  40. Core, John E. & Larcker, David F., 2002. "Performance consequences of mandatory increases in executive stock ownership," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 317-340, June.
  41. Denis, Diane K. & McConnell, John J., 2003. "International Corporate Governance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 1-36, March.
  42. Brav, Alon & Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R. & Michaely, Roni, 2005. "Payout policy in the 21st century," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 483-527, September.
  43. Simpson, W. Gary & Gleason, Anne E., 1999. "Board structure, ownership, and financial distress in banking firms," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 281-292, September.
  44. Mayers, David & Shivdasani, Anil & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1997. "Board Composition and Corporate Control: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(1), pages 33-62, January.
  45. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
  46. Sanford Grossman & Oliver Hart, . "An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-80, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  47. Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1979. "Optimal incentive contracts with imperfect information," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 231-259, April.
  48. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  49. Quigley, John M., 2006. "Real Estate Portfolio Allocation: The European Consumers’ Perspective," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt14v7g9f8, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  50. Clifford G. Holderness & Randall S. Kroszner & Dennis P. Sheehan, 1999. "Were the Good Old Days That Good? Changes in Managerial Stock Ownership Since the Great Depression," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 435-469, 04.
  51. Shivdasani, Anil, 1993. "Board composition, ownership structure, and hostile takeovers," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1-3), pages 167-198, April.
  52. Paul Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2003. "Corporate Governance And Equity Prices," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(1), pages 107-155, February.
  53. Yongheng Deng & Joseph Gyourko, . "Real Estate Ownership by Non-Real Estate Firms: An Estimate of the Impact on Firm Returns," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 321, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
  54. Quigley, John M., 2006. "Real estate portfolio allocation: The European consumers' perspective," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 169-188, September.
  55. Short, Helen & Keasey, Kevin, 1999. "Managerial ownership and the performance of firms: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 79-101, March.
  56. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
  57. Rosenstein, Stuart & Wyatt, Jeffrey G., 1990. "Outside directors, board independence, and shareholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 175-191, August.
  58. Weisbach, Michael S., 1988. "Outside directors and CEO turnover," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 431-460, January.
  59. Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael S. Weisbach, 1991. "The Effects of Board Composition and Direct Incentives on Firm Performance," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(4), Winter.
  60. Doukas, John, 1995. "Overinvestment, Tobin's q and gains from foreign acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1285-1303, October.
  61. Dirk Brounen & Piet Eichholtz, 2005. "Corporate Real Estate Ownership Implications: International Performance Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 429-445, June.
  62. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  63. James S. Ang & Rebel A. Cole & James Wuh Lin, 2000. "Agency Costs and Ownership Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 81-106, 02.
  64. Coles, Jeffrey L. & Daniel, Naveen D. & Naveen, Lalitha, 2006. "Managerial incentives and risk-taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 431-468, February.
  65. Tim Opler & Lee Pinkowitz & Rene Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 1997. "The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings," NBER Working Papers 6234, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  66. Michael J. Seiler & Arjun Chatrath & James R. Webb, 2001. "Real Asset Ownership and the Risk and Return to Stockholders," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 22(1/2), pages 199-212.
  67. Mehran, Hamid, 1995. "Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 163-184, June.
  68. Hart, Oliver, 1995. "Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288817, September.
  69. Marcus T. Allen & Ronald C. Rutherford & Thomas M. Springer, 1993. "The Wealth Effects of Corporate Real Estate Leasing," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(4), pages 567-578.
  70. Ozkan, Aydin & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2004. "Corporate cash holdings: An empirical investigation of UK companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2103-2134, September.
  71. Singh, Manohar & Davidson III, Wallace N., 2003. "Agency costs, ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 793-816, May.
  72. V. Sivarama Krishnan & R. Charles Moyer, 1994. "Bankruptcy Costs and the Financial Leasing Decision," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(2), Summer.
  73. Parrino, Robert, 1997. "CEO turnover and outside succession A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 165-197, November.
  74. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
  75. Brickley, James A. & Coles, Jeffrey L. & Terry, Rory L., 1994. "Outside directors and the adoption of poison pills," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 371-390, June.
  76. Hugh O. Nourse & Stephen E. Roulac & Stellan Lundstrom, 1993. "Linking Real Estate Decisions to Corporate Strategy," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(4), pages 475-494.
  77. Denis, David J. & Sarin, Atulya, 1999. "Ownership and board structures in publicly traded corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 187-223, May.
  78. Lehn, Kenneth & Poulsen, Annette, 1989. " Free Cash Flow and Stockholder Gains in Going Private Transactions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 771-87, July.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44253. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.