Wages & income mobility in Indian labour market: the post-reform scenario
AbstractImprovement in the living conditions of workers is an important objective of development planners and India is no exception. The crux of this lies in returns from work, or wage level. While non-wage aspects are important, wage level is the most pertinent indicator of condition of workers and increase in real wage level signals improvement in condition of labour market. Though most studies compare wages at different points of time from cross-sectional data, they provide an aggregative view without control for variables that are particular to the household/family. Contrary to this, intergenerational mobility in wage income following life cycle theory observes direction & quantum of movement of workers’ wage relative to their parents, therefore filtering out household characteristics, and providing better measure of workers’ conditions and its trends over time. Another important aspect that can be explored by looking at intergenerational wage mobility is related to the issue of equality. Stickiness of wage income with respect to parental income leads to persistence of income inequality across generations and questions the notional objective of equity in opportunity and openness of any society. Historically some groups are belonging to lower strata of society due to economic and or social discrimination leading to lower income and asset possession as well as capability formation which excluded them from the process of capability formation and income-earning. This exclusion and backwardness surpass the boundary of the current generation and spills over to successive generations as well. As a result Intergenerational Mobility is very low among backward classes. Also of importance is to enquire whether economic liberalization and structural reforms have had any impact on the intergenerational income mobility – has mobility today more than that in the 1990s? In this paper we explore these issues, throwing light on a hitherto neglected area of research in Indian labour market studies – intergenerational income mobility, desegregated across social classes and comparing pre-reform and post-reform results. We observe that wage income mobility between generations have been generally low in India. Though such stickiness over generations is declining over time, especially in the post-reform period, stickiness is still higher for excluded social classes. Improvement over the last decade has occurred mainly for the scheduled castes and not for the tribals who are much more spatially isolated and hence outside the orbit of economic dynamics.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 42984.
Date of creation: Nov 2012
Date of revision:
Intergenerational Mobility; wage; social class; income persistence; India;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-12-10 (All new papers)
- NEP-LAB-2012-12-10 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2012-12-10 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anders Björklund & Markus Jäntti, 2000. "Intergenerational mobility of socio-economic status in comparative perspective," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 26, pages 3-32.
- Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, 1994.
"Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families,"
in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition), pages 257-298
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, . "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 84-10, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Chul-In Lee & Gary Solon, 2006.
"Trends in Intergenerational Income Mobility,"
NBER Working Papers
12007, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bhashkar Mazumder, 2001.
"Earnings mobility in the US: a new look at intergenerational inequality,"
Working Paper Series
WP-01-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Bhashkar Mazumder, 2002. "Earnings Mobility in the US: A New Look at Intergenerational Inequality," Working Papers 02-11, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Takahiro Ito, 2007.
"Caste Discrimination and Transaction Costs in the Labor Market: Evidence from Rural North India,"
Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series
d06-200, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Ito, Takahiro, 2009. "Caste discrimination and transaction costs in the labor market: Evidence from rural North India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 292-300, March.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2005.
"Why the Apple Doesn't Fall Far: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 437-449, March.
- Sandra Black & Paul Devereux & Kjell Salvanes, 2004. "Why the apple doesn't fall far: understanding intergenerational transmission of human capital," Working Paper Series 2004-12, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Black, Sandra E. & Devereux, Paul J. & Salvanes, Kjell G., 2003. "Why the Apple Doesn't Fall Far: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital," IZA Discussion Papers 926, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2003. "Why the apple doesn't fall far: understanding intergenerational transmission of human capital," CeMMAP working papers CWP16/03, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Sandra E. Black & Paul J. Devereux & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2003. "Why the Apple Doesn't Fall Far: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital," NBER Working Papers 10066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert Erikson & John H. Goldthorpe, 2002. "Intergenerational Inequality: A Sociological Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(3), pages 31-44, Summer.
- Ray, Jhilam & Majumder, Rajarshi, 2010. "Educational and occupational mobility across generations in India: social and regional dimensions," MPRA Paper 28539, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.