Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data
AbstractAlthough accessing finance is key to the foundation of any business, particular concerns have been expressed about the ability of UK women-owned firms to obtain external finance. In this paper we use an econometric approach to explore the effect of perceptions of financial barriers to start-up on the start-up decision itself. Our analysis is based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK 2004 database. Standardising for a range of individual characteristics, we find that women are around 7.4 per cent more likely to perceive financial barriers to business start-up than men. As perceptions of financial barriers are linked negatively to the start-up decision, stronger perceptions of financial barriers among women are having a disproportionate effect on women’s start-up decisions. However, being female also has an additional negative effect on the start-up decision, not linked to financial barriers. Policy responses, therefore, need to take into account the demand-side with the aim of countering the more negative perceptions of start-up finance among potential women entrepreneurs. Mentoring and confidence building programmes are obvious possibilities. We also find support for the value of university and college-based work experience programmes. [PUBLISHED ABSTRACT]
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 23342.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in International Small Business Journal 27.2(2009): pp. 149-171
Finance; entrepreneurship; start-up; SME; gender; women;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
- G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
- M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
- D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Personal Finance
- J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-06-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENT-2010-06-26 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-SBM-2010-06-26 (Small Business Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Leung, Danny, 2006. "The male/female earnings gap and female self-employment," The Journal of Socio-Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 759-779, October.
- Taylor, Mark P, 2001.
"Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-65, November.
- Taylor, Mark P, 1999. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence From Panel Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 2084, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2004.
"Gender differences in self-employment,"
1999-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
- Andrew E. Burke & Felix R. FitzRoy & Michael A. Nolan, 2000.
"Self-Employment Wealth and Job Creation: The Roles of Gender, Non-Pecuniary Motivation and Entrepreneurial Ability,"
CRIEFF Discussion Papers
0006, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2002. " Self-Employment Wealth and Job Creation: The Roles of Gender, Non-pecuniary Motivation and Entrepreneurial Ability," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 255-70, November.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994.
"Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints,"
NBER Working Papers
4526, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
- Holtz-Eakin, D. & Joulfaian, D. & Rosen, H.S., 1992. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," Papers 129, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
- Clain, Suzanne Heller, 2000. "Gender differences in full-time self-employment," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 499-513.
- Verheul, I. & Thurik, A.R., 2000. "Start-Up Capital," Research Paper ERS-2000-07-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
- Cressy, Robert, 1996. "Are Business Startups Debt-Rationed?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1253-70, September.
- Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. " A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
- Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2000. " When Less Is More: Distinguishing between Entrepreneurial Choice and Performance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(5), pages 565-87, December.
- Niels Bosma, 2012. "The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and its Impact on Entrepreneurship Research," Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series 1201, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, revised May 2012.
- repec:dgr:uvatin:2009088 is not listed on IDEAS
- Dong Xiang & Andrew C. Worthington & Helen Higgs, 2011. "Firm-level determinants and impacts of finance-seeking behaviour and outcomes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:201115, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
- Pelger, Ines, 2012. "Male vs. female business owners: Are there differences in investment behavior?," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62016, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
- José Ernesto Amoros & Niels Bosma & Jonathan Levie, 2011. "Ten Years of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Accomplishments and Prospects," Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series 1105, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, revised Aug 2011.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.