Limited Arbitrage and Short Sales Restrictions: Evidence from the Options Markets
AbstractIn this paper, we investigate empirically the well-known put-call parity no-arbitrage relation in the presence of short sale restrictions. We use a new and comprehensive sample of options on individual stocks in combination with a measure of the cost and difficulty of short selling, specifically the spread between the rate a short-seller earns on the proceeds from the sale relative to the standard rate (the rebate rate spread). We find that violations of put-call parity are asymmetric in the direction of short sales constraints, their magnitudes are strongly related to the rebate rate spread, and they are maintained even in the presence of transactions costs both in the options and equity lending market. These violations appear to be related to both the maturity of the option and the level of valuations in the stock market, consistent with a behavioral finance theory that relies on over-optimistic investors in the stock market and segmentation between the stock and options markets. Moreover, the extent of violations of put-call parity and the rebate rate spread for individual stocks are significant predictors of future stock returns. For example, cumulative abnormal returns, net of borrowing costs, over a 2«-year sample period can exceed 65%.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 9423.
Date of creation: Jan 2003
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
- G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2003-01-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-CFN-2003-01-05 (Corporate Finance)
- NEP-FIN-2003-01-05 (Finance)
- NEP-FMK-2003-01-05 (Financial Markets)
- NEP-RMG-2003-01-05 (Risk Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jérôme B. Detemple & Shashidhar Murthy, 1997. "Equilibrium Asset Prices and No-Arbitrage with Portfolio Constraints," CIRANO Working Papers 97s-12, CIRANO.
- Basak, Suleyman & Croitoru, Benjamin, 2000.
"Equilibrium Mispricing in a Capital Market with Portfolio Constraints,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 715-48.
- Suleyman Basak & Benjamin Croitoru, . "Equilibrium Mispricing in a Capital Market with Portfolio Constraints," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 17-99, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Barberis, Nicholas & Thaler, Richard, 2003.
"A survey of behavioral finance,"
Handbook of the Economics of Finance,
in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 18, pages 1053-1128
- Andrei Shleifer ad Robert W. Vishny, 1995.
"The Limits of Arbitrage,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1725, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Owen A. Lamont & Richard H. Thaler, 2003.
"Can the Market Add and Subtract? Mispricing in Tech Stock Carve-outs,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(2), pages 227-268, April.
- Owen A. Lamont & Richard H. Thaler, . "Can the Market Add and Subtract? Mispricing in Tech Stock Carve-outs," CRSP working papers 528, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Owen A. Lamont & Richard H. Thaler, 2001. "Can the Market Add and Subtract? Mispricing in Tech Stock Carve-Outs," NBER Working Papers 8302, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Charles M. Jones & Owen A. Lamont, 2001.
"Short Sale Constraints and Stock Returns,"
NBER Working Papers
8494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Detemple, Jerome B & Selden, Larry, 1991. "A General Equilibrium Analysis of Option and Stock Market Interactions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 32(2), pages 279-303, May.
- Detemple, Jerome & Murthy, Shashidhar, 1997. "Equilibrium Asset Prices and No-Arbitrage with Portfolio Constraints," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1133-74.
- Geczy, Christopher C. & Musto, David K. & Reed, Adam V., 2002. "Stocks are special too: an analysis of the equity lending market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 241-269.
- Klemkosky, Robert C & Resnick, Bruce G, 1979. "Put-Call Parity and Market Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(5), pages 1141-55, December.
- Nisbet, Mary, 1992. "Put-call parity theory and an empirical test of the efficiency of the London Traded Options Market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 381-403, April.
- Figlewski, Stephen, 1981. "The Informational Effects of Restrictions on Short Sales: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(04), pages 463-476, November.
- Longstaff, Francis A, 1995. "Option Pricing and the Martingale Restriction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1091-1124.
- Bodurtha, James N, Jr & Courtadon, Georges R, 1986. " Efficiency Tests of the Foreign Currency Options Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 151-62, March.
- Duffie, Darrell & Garleanu, Nicolae & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2002. "Securities lending, shorting, and pricing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 307-339.
- Robert C. Merton, 1973. "Theory of Rational Option Pricing," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 4(1), pages 141-183, Spring.
- Joseph Chen & Harrison Hong & Jeremy C. Stein, 2001.
"Breadth of Ownership and Stock Returns,"
NBER Working Papers
8151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mark Mitchell & Todd Pulvino & Erik Stafford, 2002. "Limited Arbitrage in Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 551-584, 04.
- Jarrow, Robert A, 1980. " Heterogeneous Expectations, Restrictions on Short Sales, and Equilibrium Asset Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(5), pages 1105-13, December.
- Detemple, Jerome & Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "Option listing and stock returns : An empirical analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 781-801, October.
- Harrison Hong & Jeremy C. Stein, 2003. "Differences of Opinion, Short-Sales Constraints, and Market Crashes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 487-525.
- Geske, Robert & Johnson, Herb E, 1984. " The American Put Option Valued Analytically," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1511-24, December.
- Eli Ofek & Matthew Richardson, 2001. "DotCom Mania: The Rise and Fall of Internet Stock Prices," NBER Working Papers 8630, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John H. Cochrane, 2002. "Stocks as Money: Convenience Yield and the Tech-Stock Bubble," NBER Working Papers 8987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Almazan, Andres & Brown, Keith C. & Carlson, Murray & Chapman, David A., 2004. "Why constrain your mutual fund manager?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 289-321, August.
- Kamara, Avraham & Miller, Thomas W., 1995. "Daily and Intradaily Tests of European Put-Call Parity," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(04), pages 519-539, December.
- Doukas, John A. & Kim, Chansog & Pantzalis, Christos, 2006. "Divergence of opinion and equity returns under different states of earnings expectations," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 310-331, August.
- Alfredo IbÃ¡Ã±ez, 2005. "Option-Pricing in Incomplete Markets: The Hedging Portfolio plus a Risk Premium-Based Recursive Approach," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 216, Society for Computational Economics.
- Han, Bin, 2004. "Limits of Arbitrage, Sentiment and Pricing Kernal: Evidences from Index Options," Working Paper Series 2004-2, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
- Owen Lamont, 2004.
"Go Down Fighting: Short Seller vs. Firms,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
amz2521, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Aug 2004.
- Marsh, Ian W. & Payne, Richard, 2012. "Banning short sales and market quality: The UK’s experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1975-1986.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.