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Trade Policy, Exchange Rates and Growth

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  • Sebastian Edwards

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between trade policy and economic performance. The paper is divided in two fundamental parts. The first one uses a cross country data set to investigate the relationship between trade policy and productivity growth. It is found that countries that are more open to the rest of the world have experienced faster growth in total factor productivity than countries with high trade barriers. In the second part the recent Latin American experiences with trade liberalization reforms are investigated. It is shown that in the last few years the Latin American countries have gone from having one of the most distorted external sectors, to having very low degrees of protectionism. The extent of the liberalization efforts is documented and the effect on productivity and exports is investigated.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 4511.

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Date of creation: Oct 1993
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Publication status: published as Reform, Recovery, and Growth: Latin America and the Middle East, Rudiger Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards, eds., (Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 1995), pp. 13-49
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4511

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References

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  1. Sebastian Edwards, 1988. "Real and Monetary Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Behavior: Theory and Evidence From Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 2721, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Robert P. Flood & Peter Isard, 1988. "Monetary Policy Strategies," NBER Working Papers 2770, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Corden, W M, 1969. "Effective Protective Rates in the General Equilibrium Model: A Geometric Note," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 135-41, July.
  4. Cukierman, Alex & Edwards, Sebastian & Tabellini, Guido, 1992. "Seigniorage and Political Instability," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 537-55, June.
  5. Barro, Robert J, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-43, May.
  6. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  7. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1977. "Rules Rather Than Discretion: The Inconsistency of Optimal Plans," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 473-91, June.
  8. Calvo, Guillermo A, 1978. "On the Time Consistency of Optimal Policy in a Monetary Economy," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1411-28, November.
  9. Condon, Timothy & Corbo, Vittorio & de Melo, Jaime, 1985. "Productivity growth, external shocks, and capital inflows in Chile: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 379-405.
  10. Dixit, Avinash, 1985. "Tax policy in open economies," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 313-374 Elsevier.
  11. McKinnon, Ronald I., 1982. "The order of economic liberalization: Lessons from Chile and Argentina," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 159-186, January.
  12. Edwards, Sebastian & Edwards, Alejandra Cox, 1991. "Monetarism and Liberalization," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226184890, March.
  13. Corbo, Vittorio & De Melo, Jaime, 1985. "Overview and summary," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 13(8), pages 863-866, August.
  14. Peter Montiel & Bijan B. Aghevli & Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries," IMF Occasional Papers 78, International Monetary Fund.
  15. Fischer, Stanley, 1988. "Symposium on the Slowdown in Productivity Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 3-7, Fall.
  16. Jere H. Behrman, 1976. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Chile," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number behr76-1, May.
  17. Krueger, Anne O, 1978. "Alternative Trade Strategies and Employment in LDCs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 270-74, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Jeffrey A. Frankel & David Romer & Teresa Cyrus, 1995. "Trade and growth in East Asian countries: cause and effect?," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 95-03, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  2. Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Junior, 2001. "Balance-of-payments constrained economic growth in Brazil," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td155, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  3. Ramon Moreno, 2001. "Pegging and stabilization policy in developing countries," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 17-29.
  4. Schröder, Marcel, 2013. "Should developing countries undervalue their currencies?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 140-151.
  5. Lopez, Juan J., 1998. "Private Investment Response to Neoliberal Reforms in a Delegative Democracy: Reflections on Argentina," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 1), pages 441-457.
  6. Ana Flávia Machado & Frederico G. Jayme Jr, 2002. "Trade liberalization and labor market in Brazil: impacts on employment and wages in tradeables and nontradeables sectors," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td174, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  7. Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2002. "Indexation, Inflation and Monetary Policy: An Overview," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Fernando Lefort & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Serie (ed.), Indexation, Inflation and MOnetary Policy, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 1, pages 001-018 Central Bank of Chile.
  8. Jeffrey A. Frankel & David Romer, 1996. "Trade and Growth: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 5476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Frankel, Jeffrey & Rose, Andrew K., 2001. "An Estimate of the Effect of Common Currencies on Trade and Income," Working Paper Series rwp01-013, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  10. Bailliu, Jeannine & Lafrance, Robert & Perrault, Jean-Francois, 2003. "Does Exchange Rate Policy Matter for Growth?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 381-414, Winter.
  11. Kamin, Steven B., 2001. "Real exchange rates and inflation in exchange-rate-based stabilizations: an empirical examination," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 237-253, February.
  12. Hoffmaister, Alexander W. & Pradhan, Mahmood & Samiei, Hossein, 1998. "Have North-South growth linkages changed?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 791-808, May.
  13. David M. Gould, 1995. "Mexico's crisis: looking back to assess the future," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q II, pages 2-12.
  14. Sebastian Edwards, 2011. "Exchange Rates in Emerging Countries: Eleven Empirical Regularities from Latin America and East Asia," NBER Working Papers 17074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Jr, 2001. "Notes on trade and growth," Textos para Discussão Cedeplar-UFMG td166, Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
  16. Kim, Se-Jik & Kim, Yong Jin, 2000. "Growth gains from trade and education," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 519-545, April.
  17. BEN ALI Mohamed Sami, 2006. "Capital Account Liberalization And Exchange Rate Regime Choice, What Scope For Flexibility In Tunisia?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp815, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  18. Dang, D Anh, 2010. "Trade Liberalization and Institutional Quality: Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 26346, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Aug 2010.

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