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Inconsistent Regulators: Evidence From Banking

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  • Sumit Agarwal
  • David Lucca
  • Amit Seru
  • Francesco Trebbi

Abstract

US state chartered commercial banks are supervised alternately by state and federal regulators. Each regulator supervises a given bank for a fixed time period according to a predetermined rotation schedule. We use unique data to examine differences between federal and state regulators for these banks. Federal regulators are significantly less lenient, downgrading supervisory ratings about twice as frequently as state supervisors. Under federal regulators, banks report higher nonperforming loans, more delinquent loans, higher regulatory capital ratios, and lower ROA. There is a higher frequency of bank failures and problem-bank rates in states with more lenient supervision relative to the federal benchmark. Some states are more lenient than others. Regulatory capture by industry constituents and supervisory staff characteristics can explain some of these differences. These findings suggest that inconsistent oversight can hamper the effectiveness of regulation by delaying corrective actions and by inducing costly variability in operations of regulated entities.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17736.

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Date of creation: Jan 2012
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17736

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  1. Patrick Bolton & Xavier Freixas & Joel Shapiro, 2009. "The credit ratings game," Economics Working Papers 1149, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  2. Daniel A. Ackerberg & Maristella Botticini, 1999. "Endogenous Matching and the Empirical Determinants of Contract Form," Papers 0096, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
  3. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Jérome Pouyet, 2000. "The Subsidiarity Bias in Regulation," series 0001, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Metodi Matematici - Università di Bari, revised Jun 2000.
  4. Michael J. Brennan & Eduardo S. Schwartz, 1982. "Consistent Regulatory Policy under Uncertainty," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 506-521, Autumn.
  5. Martimort, David, 1999. "Renegotiation Design with Multiple Regulators," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 261-293, October.
  6. Elizabeth Olmstead Teisberg, 1993. "Capital Investment Strategies under Uncertain Regulation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(4), pages 591-604, Winter.
  7. Jean-Jacques Laffont & David Martimort, 1999. "Separation of Regulators Against Collusive Behavior," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(2), pages 232-262, Summer.
  8. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Jean Tirole, 1993. "A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262121743, December.
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Cited by:
  1. Mark Carlson & Hui Shan & Missaka Warusawitharana, 2011. "Capital ratios and bank lending: a matched bank approach," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-34, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. repec:cge:warwcg:180 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Bassett, William F. & Chosak, Mary Beth & Driscoll, John C. & Zakrajšek, Egon, 2014. "Changes in bank lending standards and the macroeconomy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 23-40.
  4. Pagès, Henri, 2013. "Bank monitoring incentives and optimal ABS," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 30-54.
  5. Mitchener, Kris James, 2014. "The Evolution of Bank Supervision: Evidence from U.S. States," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 181, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  6. William F. Bassett & Seung Jung Lee & Thomas W. Spiller, 2012. "Estimating changes in supervisory standards and their economic effects," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-55, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Yuliya Demyanyk & Elena Loutskina, 2012. "Mortgage companies and regulatory arbitrage," Working Paper 1220R, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  8. repec:cge:warwcg:181 is not listed on IDEAS

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