Does Increased Access Increase Equality? Gender and Child Health Investments in India
AbstractPolicymakers often argue that increasing access to health care is one crucial avenue for decreasing gender inequality in the developing world. Although this is generally true in the cross section, time series evidence does not always point to the same conclusion. This paper analyzes the relationship between access to child health investments and gender inequality in those health investments in India. A simple theory of gender-biased parental investment suggests that gender inequality may actually be non-monotonically related to access to health investments. At low levels of availability, investment in girls and boys is low but equal; as availability increases, boys get investments first, creating inequality. As availability increases further, girls also receive investments and equality is restored. I test this theory using data on the relationship between gender balance in vaccinations and the availability of "Health Camps" in India. I find support for a non-monotonic relationship. This result may shed light on the contrast between the cross-sectional and time-series evidence on gender and development, and may provide guidance for health policy in developing countries.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 12743.
Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Note: LS HC
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O12 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2006-12-22 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2006-12-22 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-DEV-2006-12-22 (Development)
- NEP-HEA-2006-12-22 (Health Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paula Griffiths & Zoë Matthews & Andrew Hinde, 2000. "Understanding the sex ratio in India: A simulation approach," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 477-488, November.
- Vinod Mishra & T. K. Roy & Robert D. Retherford, 2004. "Sex Differentials in Childhood Feeding, Health Care, and Nutritional Status in India," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 269-295.
- Peter Mayer, 1999. "India's Falling Sex Ratios," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 25(2), pages 323-343.
- Chatterjee, Meera, 1990. "Indian women, health, and productivity," Policy Research Working Paper Series 442, The World Bank.
- Kanbur, Ravi & Haddad, Lawrence, 1994.
"Are Better Off Households More Unequal or Less Unequal?,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 445-58, July.
- Haddad, Lawrence & Kanbur, Ravi, 1990. "Are better off households more unequal or less unequal ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 373, The World Bank.
- Borooah, Vani K., 2004.
"Gender bias among children in India in their diet and immunisation against disease,"
Social Science & Medicine,
Elsevier, vol. 58(9), pages 1719-1731, May.
- Borooah, Vani, 2004. "Gender Bias Among Children in India in their Diet and Immunisation Against Disease," MPRA Paper 19590, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lupin Rahman & Vijayendra Rao, 2004. "The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore's Thesis with New Data," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 239-268.
- Rohini Pande, 2003. "Selective gender differences in childhood nutrition and immunization in rural India: The role of siblings," Demography, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 395-418, August.
- Seema Jayachandran & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2011.
"Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 126(3), pages 1485-1538.
- Seema Jayachandran & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2009. "Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less Than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India," NBER Working Papers 15041, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Seema Jayachandran & Ilyana Kuziemko, 2009. "Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less Than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India," Working Papers id:2041, eSocialSciences.
- Jayachandran, Seema & Kuziemko, Ilyana, 2009. "Why Do Mothers Breastfeed Girls Less Than Boys? Evidence and Implications for Child Health in India," CEPR Discussion Papers 7321, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Singh, Ashish, 2010.
"Inequality of opportunity in Indian children: the case of immunization and nutrition,"
32505, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ashish Singh, 2011. "Inequality of Opportunity in Indian Children: The Case of Immunization and Nutrition," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 30(6), pages 861-883, December.
- M. Bratti & M. Mendola, 2012.
"Parental Health and Child Schooling,"
CHILD Working Papers Series
4, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA.
- Bratti, Massimiliano & Mendola, Mariapia, 2011. "Parental Health and Child Schooling," IZA Discussion Papers 5870, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Massimiliano Bratti & Mariapia Mendola, 2011. "Parental Health and Child Schooling," Working Papers 212, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2011.
- Massimiliano Bratti & Mariapia Mendola, 2011. "Parental Health and Child Schooling," Development Working Papers 318, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 17 Oct 2011.
- Jinkook Lee & Regina A. Shih & Kevin Feeney & Kenneth M. Langa, 2011. "Cognitive Health of Older Indians: Individual and Geographic Determinants of Female Disadvantage," Working Papers 889, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
- Santosh, Kumar, 2009. "Childhood Immunization, Mortality and Human Capital Accumulation: Micro-Evidence from India," MPRA Paper 27127, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Silvia H. Barcellos & Leandro Carvalho & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2012. "Child Gender And Parental Investments In India: Are Boys And Girls Treated Differently?," NBER Working Papers 17781, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stephan Klasen & Simon Lange, 2011. "Getting Progress Right: Measuring Progress Towards the MDGs Against Historical Trends," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 87, Courant Research Centre PEG, revised 20 Feb 2012.
- Emily Oster & Rebecca Thornton, 2009. "Menstruation and Education in Nepal," NBER Working Papers 14853, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barrera-Osorio, Felipe & Bertrand, Marianne & L. Linden, Leigh & Perez-Calle, Francisco, 2008.
"Conditional cash transfers in education : design features, peer and sibling effects evidence from a randomized experiment in Colombia,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4580, The World Bank.
- Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Marianne Bertrand & Leigh L. Linden & Francisco Perez-Calle, 2008. "Conditional Cash Transfers in Education Design Features, Peer and Sibling Effects Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 13890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rubiana Chamarbagwala & Martin Ranger, 2010.
"A Multinomial Model of Fertility Choice and Offspring Sex Ratios in India,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(3), pages 417-438.
- Rubiana Chamarbagwala & Martin Ranger, 2007. "A Multinomial Model of Fertility Choice and Offspring Sex-Ratios in India," Caepr Working Papers 2007-022, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Economics Department, Indiana University Bloomington.
- Shinsuke Tanaka, 2008. "Access to Health Infrastructure and Child Health Development: Evidence from Post-Apartheid South Africa," ISER Discussion Paper 0768, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, revised Jan 2010.
- Silvia Helena Barcellos & Leandro Carvalho & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2010. "Child Gender and Parental Investments in India: Are Boys and Girls Treated Differently?," Working Papers 756, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
- Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Pogge, Thomas, 2012. "Ethical and Economic Perspectives on Global Health Interventions," IZA Policy Papers 38, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.