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Inequality of opportunity in Indian children: the case of immunization and nutrition

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  • Singh, Ashish

Abstract

A child’s access to health care and minimum nutrition should not depend on circumstances such as caste, religion, gender, place of birth, or other parental characteristics, which are beyond the control of a child. This paper uses two rounds of Indian National Family Health Surveys and concepts of Inequality of Opportunity and Human Opportunity Indices to measure inequality arising out of unequal access to full immunization and minimum nutrition for Indian children. The results suggest overall high level of inequality of opportunity with substantial geographical variations. Changes in inequality of opportunity in the two services during 1992-93 to 2005-06 were mixed with some geographical regions outperforming others. The findings also call for substantial policy revisions if the goal of universal access to full immunization and minimum nutrition has to be achieved.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 32505.

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Date of creation: Apr 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:32505

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Keywords: Inequality of Opportunity; Indian Children; Access to full immunization; Access to Minimum Nutrition; Inequality of Opportunity Index; Human Opportunity Index;

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  1. Vinod Mishra & T. K. Roy & Robert D. Retherford, 2004. "Sex Differentials in Childhood Feeding, Health Care, and Nutritional Status in India," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 269-295.
  2. Angus Deaton & Jean Drèze, 2008. "Nutrition In India: Facts And Interpretations," Working papers 170, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  3. Borooah, Vani K., 2004. "Gender bias among children in India in their diet and immunisation against disease," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 58(9), pages 1719-1731, May.
  4. John E. Roemer, 2006. "Economic Development as Opportunity Equalization," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1583, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  5. Jaime Saavedra-Chanduví & José R. Molinas & Ricardo Paes de Barros & Francisco H. G. Ferreira, . "Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications 60098, Inter-American Development Bank.
  6. Sonalde Desai & Veena Kulkarni, 2008. "Changing educational inequalities in india in the context of affirmative action," Demography, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 245-270, May.
  7. (No last name available), Himanshu, 2013. "Poverty and Food Security in India," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 369, Asian Development Bank.
  8. Ricardo Paes de Barros & Francisco H. G. Ferreira & Jose R. Molinas Vega & Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi, 2009. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2580.
  9. Griffiths, Paula & Matthews, Zoë & Hinde, Andrew, 2002. "Gender, family, and the nutritional status of children in three culturally contrasting states of India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 55(5), pages 775-790, September.
  10. Filmer, Deon & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data - or tears : with an application to educational enrollments in states of India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1994, The World Bank.
  11. Oster, Emily, 2009. "Does increased access increase equality? Gender and child health investments in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 62-76, May.
  12. Das Gupta, Monica & Lokshin, Michael & Gragnolati, Michele & Ivaschenko, Oleksiy, 2005. "Improving child nutrition outcomes in India : can the integrated child development services be more effective?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3647, The World Bank.
  13. Wagstaff, Adam & Watanabe, Naoko, 2000. "Socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in the developing world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2434, The World Bank.
  14. Michele Gragnolati & Caryn Bredenkamp & Meera Shekar & Monica Das Gupta & Yi-Kyoung Lee, 2006. "India's Undernourished Children : A Call for Reform and Action," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7241.
  15. Mark Montgomery & Michele Gragnolati & Kathleen Burke & Edmundo Paredes, 2000. "Measuring living standards with proxy variables," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 155-174, May.
  16. Diganta Mukherjee & Saswati Das, 2008. "Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 89(2), pages 305-322, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Ashish Singh, 2011. "Gender based intra-household inequality of opportunity in academic skills among Indian children," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2333-2346.

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