Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Testing Mean-Variance Efficiency In Capm With Possibly Non-Gaussian Errors : An Exact Simulation-Based Approach

Contents:

Author Info

  • Marie-Claude BEAULIEU
  • Jean-Marie DUFOUR
  • Lynda KHALAF
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    In this paper, we propose exact likelihood-based mean-variance efficiency tests of the market portfolio in the context of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), allowing for a wide class of error distributions which include normality as a special case. These tests are developed in the framework of multivariate linear regressions (MLR). It is well known, however, that despite their simple statistical structure, standard asymptotically justified MLR-based tests are unreliable. In financial econometrics, exact tests have been proposed for a few specific hypotheses [Jobson and Korkie (Journal of Financial Economics, 1982), MacKinlay (Journal of Financial Economics, 1987), Gibbons, Ross and Shanken (Econometrica, 1989), Zhou (Journal of Finance, 1993)], most of which depend on normality. For the gaussian model, our tests correspond to Gibbons, Ross and Shanken's mean-variance efficiency tests. In non-gaussian contexts, we reconsider mean-variance efficiency tests allowing for multivariate Student-t and gaussian mixture errors. Our framework allows to cast more evidence on whether the normality assumption is too restrictive when testing the CAPM. We also propose exact multivariate diagnostic checks (including tests for multivariate GARCH and multivariate generalization of the well-known variance ratio tests) and goodness of fit tests as well as a set estimate for the intervening nuisance parameters. Our results [over five-year subperiods] show the following: (i) multivariate normality is rejected in most subperiods, (ii) residual checks reveal no significant departures from the multivariate i.i.d. assumption, and (iii) mean-variance efficiency tests of the market portfolio are not rejected as frequently once they are allowed for the possibility of non-normal errors.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.cireqmontreal.com/wp-content/uploads/cahiers/17-2002-cah.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 17-2002.

    as in new window
    Length: 32 pages
    Date of creation: 2002
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:mtl:montec:17-2002

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: C.P. 6128, Succ. centre-ville, Montréal (PQ) H3C 3J7
    Phone: (514) 343-6557
    Fax: (514) 343-7221
    Email:
    Web page: http://www.cireq.umontreal.ca
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: capital asset pricing model; CAPM; mean-variance efficiency; nonnormality; multivariate linear regression; uniform linear hypothesis; exact test; Monte Carlo test; bootstrap; nuisance parameters; specification test; diagnostics; GARCH; variance ratio test;

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Shanken, Jay, 1986. " Testing Portfolio Efficiency When the Zero-Beta Rate Is Unknown: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 269-76, March.
    2. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    3. Beaulieu, Marie-Claude, 1998. "Time to maturity in the basis of stock market indices: Evidence from the S&P 500 and the MMI," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 177-195, September.
    4. Gibbons, Michael R. & Shanken, Jay, 1987. "Subperiod aggregation and the power of multivariate tests of portfolio efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 389-394, December.
    5. Jobson, J. D. & Korkie, Bob, 1989. "A Performance Interpretation of Multivariate Tests of Asset Set Intersection, Spanning, and Mean-Variance Efficiency," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 185-204, June.
    6. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Kiviet, Jan F., 1996. "Exact tests for structural change in first-order dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 39-68, January.
    7. Owen, Joel & Rabinovitch, Ramon, 1983. " On the Class of Elliptical Distributions and Their Applications to the Theory of Portfolio Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 745-52, June.
    8. Lee, John H H & King, Maxwell L, 1993. "A Locally Most Mean Powerful Based Score Test for ARCH and GARCH Regression Disturbances," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(1), pages 17-27, January.
    9. Dufour, J.M. & Khalaf, L., 2000. "Exact Tests for Contemporaneous Correlation of Disturbances in Seemingly Unrelated Regressions," Cahiers de recherche 2000-11, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
    10. Groenewold, Nicolaas & Fraser, Patricia, 2001. "Tests of asset-pricing models: how important is the iid-normal assumption?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 427-449, September.
    11. Jean-Marie Dufour, 1997. "Some Impossibility Theorems in Econometrics with Applications to Structural and Dynamic Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(6), pages 1365-1388, November.
    12. Velu, Raja & Zhou, Guofu, 1999. "Testing multi-beta asset pricing models," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 219-241, September.
    13. Andrew W. Lo & A. Craig MacKinlay, 1988. "The Size and Power of the Variance Ratio Test in Finite Samples: A Monte Carlo Investigation," NBER Technical Working Papers 0066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Jean-Thomas Bernard & Jean-Marie Dufour & Ian Genest & Lynda Khalaf, 2001. "Simulation-Based Finite-Sample Tests for Heteroskedasticity and ARCH Effects," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-25, CIRANO.
    15. Affleck-Graves, John & McDonald, Bill, 1989. " Nonnormalities and Tests of Asset Pricing Theories," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 889-908, September.
    16. Shanken, Jay, 1990. "Intertemporal asset pricing : An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 99-120.
    17. Chamberlain, Gary, 1983. "A characterization of the distributions that imply mean--Variance utility functions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 185-201, February.
    18. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    19. MacKinlay, A Craig & Richardson, Matthew P, 1991. " Using Generalized Method of Moments to Test Mean-Variance Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(2), pages 511-27, June.
    20. Jobson, J. D. & Korkie, Bob, 1982. "Potential performance and tests of portfolio efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 433-466, December.
    21. Kenneth Stewart, 1997. "Exact testing in multivariate regression," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 321-352.
    22. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & FARHAT, Abdeljelil & GARDIOL, Lucien, 1998. "Simulation-Based Finite-Sample Normality Tests in Linear Regressions," Cahiers de recherche 9811, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    23. Ross, Stephen A., 1978. "Mutual fund separation in financial theory--The separating distributions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 254-286, April.
    24. Zhou, Guofu, 1993. " Asset-Pricing Tests under Alternative Distributions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1927-42, December.
    25. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-52, September.
    26. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie & KHALAF, Lynda, 2000. "Simulation-Based Finite and Large Sample Tests in Multivariate Regressions," Cahiers de recherche 2000-10, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    27. Dufour, J.-M., 1986. "Exact tests and confidence sets in linear regressions with autocorrelated errors," CORE Discussion Papers 1986037, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    28. Stewart, Kenneth G., 1995. "The functional equivalence of the W, LR, and LM statistics," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 109-112, August.
    29. Zhou, Guofu, 1991. "Small sample tests of portfolio efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 165-191, November.
    30. Zhou, Guofu, 1995. "Small sample rank tests with applications to asset pricing," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 71-93, March.
    31. Jiahui Wang & Eric Zivot, 1998. "Inference on Structural Parameters in Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1389-1404, November.
    32. Richardson, Matthew & Smith, Tom, 1993. "A Test for Multivariate Normality in Stock Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66(2), pages 295-321, April.
    33. Allingham, Michael, 1991. "Existence Theorems in the Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 1169-74, July.
    34. Gibbons, Michael R., 1982. "Multivariate tests of financial models : A new approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 3-27, March.
    35. Raymond Kan & Guofu Zhou, 2012. "Tests of Mean-Variance Spanning," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(1), pages 139-187, May.
    36. Berndt, Ernst R & Savin, N Eugene, 1977. "Conflict among Criteria for Testing Hypotheses in the Multivariate Linear Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1263-77, July.
    37. Berk, Jonathan B., 1997. "Necessary Conditions for the CAPM," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 245-257, March.
    38. Nielsen, Lars Tyge, 1990. "Existence of equilibrium in CAPM," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 223-231, October.
    39. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
    40. Fiorentini, G. & Sentana, E. & Calzolari, G., 2000. "The Score of Condionally Heteroskedastic Dynamic Regression Models with Student T Innovations, and an LM Test for Multivariate Normality," Papers 0007, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mtl:montec:17-2002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sharon BREWER).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.