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Exact Tests for Contemporaneous Correlation of Disturbances in Seemingly Unrelated Regressions

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  • Jean-Marie Dufour

    ()

  • Lynda Khalaf

Abstract

This paper proposes finite-sample procedures for testing the SURE specification in multi-equation regression models, i.e. whether the disturbances in different equations are contemporaneously uncorrelated or not. We apply the technique of Monte Carlo (MC) tests [Dwass (1957), Barnard (1963)] to obtain exact tests based on standard LR and LM zero correlation tests. We also suggest a MC quasi-LR (QLR) test based on feasible generalized least squares (FGLS). We show that the latter statistics are pivotal under the null, which provides the justification for applying MC tests. Furthermore, we extend the exact independence test proposed by Harvey and Phillips (1982) to the multi-equation framework. Specifically, we introduce several induced tests based on a set of simultaneous Harvey/Phillips-type tests and suggest a simulation-based solution to the associated combination problem. The properties of the proposed tests are studied in a Monte Carlo experiment which shows that standard asymptotic tests exhibit important size distortions, while MC tests achieve complete size control and display good power. Moreover, MC-QLR tests performed best in terms of power, a result of interest from the point of view of simulation-based tests. The power of the MC induced tests improves appreciably in comparison to standard Bonferroni tests and in certain cases outperform the likelihood-based MC tests. The tests are applied to data used by Fischer (1993) to analyze the macroeconomic determinants of growth. Cet article propose des procédures exactes pour tester la spécification SURE (régressions empilées) dans le contexte des régressions linéaires multivariées, i.e. si les perturbations des différentes équations sont corrélées ou non. Nous appliquons la technique des tests de Monte Carlo (MC) [Dwass (1957), Barnard (1963)] pour obtenir des tests d'indépendance exacts fondés sur les critères du quotient de vraisemblance (LR) et du multiplicateur de Lagrange (LM). Nous suggérons aussi un critère du type quasi-quotient de vraisemblance (QLR) dérivé sur base des moindres carrés généralisés réalisables (FGLS). Nous démontrons que ces statistiques sont libres de paramètres de nuisance sous l'hypothèse nulle, ce qui justifie l'application des tests de Monte Carlo. Par ailleurs, nous généralisons le test exact proposé par Harvey et Phillips (1982) au contexte des équations multiples. En particulier, nous proposons plusieurs tests induits basés sur des tests de type Harvey-Phillips et nous suggérons une technique basée sur des simulations afin de résoudre le problème de combinaison de tests. Nous évaluons les propriétés des tests que nous proposons dans le cadre d'une étude de Monte Carlo. Nos résultats montrent que les tests asymptotiques usuels présentent de sérieuses distorsions de niveau, alors que les tests de MC contrôlent parfaitement le niveau et ont une bonne puissance. De plus, les tests QLR se comportent bien du point de vue de la puissance; ce résultat est intéressant vu que les tests (multivariés) que nous proposons sont basés sur des simulations. La puissance des tests de MC induits augmente sensiblement par rapport aux tests fondés sur l'inégalité de Bonferroni et, dans certains cas, dépasse la puissance des tests de MC fondés sur la vraisemblance. Nous appliquons les tests sur des données utilisées par Fischer (1993) pour analyser des modèles de croissance.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2000s-16.

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Date of creation: 01 May 2000
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2000s-16

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Keywords: Seemingly unrelated regressions; SURE system; multivariate linear regression; contemporaneous correlation; exact test; finite-sample test; Monte Carlo test; bootstrap; induced test; LM test; likelihood ratio test; specification test; macroeconomics; growth; Régressions empilées; système SURE; test d'indépendance; régression linéaire multivariée; corrélation contemporaine; test exact; test à distance finie; test de Monte Carlo; bootstrap; test induit; test LM; quotient de vraisemblance; test de spécification; macroéconomie; croissance;

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  1. Savin, N.E., 1984. "Multiple hypothesis testing," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 14, pages 827-879 Elsevier.
  2. Jean-Marie Dufour & Olivier Torrès, 2000. "Markovian Processes, Two-Sided Autoregressions and Finite-Sample Inference for Stationary and Nonstationary Autoregressive Processes," CIRANO Working Papers 2000s-17, CIRANO.
  3. Dufour, J.M. & Kiviet, J.F., 1995. "Exact Tests in Single Equation Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models," Cahiers de recherche 9549, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  4. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Khalaf, Lynda, 2002. "Simulation based finite and large sample tests in multivariate regressions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 303-322, December.
  5. Dufour, Jean-Marie, 1990. "Exact Tests and Confidence Sets in Linear Regressions with Autocorrelated Errors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 475-94, March.
  6. Cameron, C. & Trivedi, P.K., 1992. "Tests of Independence in Parametric Models : with Applications and Illustrations," Papers 9237, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
  7. Harvey, Andrew C & Phillips, Garry D A, 1982. "Testing for Contemporaneous Correlation of Disturbances in Systems of Regression Equations," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 79-91, November.
  8. Jean-Marie Dufour & Jan F. Kiviet, 1998. "Exact Inference Methods for First-Order Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 79-104, January.
  9. Berndt, Ernst R & Savin, N Eugene, 1977. "Conflict among Criteria for Testing Hypotheses in the Multivariate Linear Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1263-77, July.
  10. Dufour, Jean-Marie, 1989. "Nonlinear Hypotheses, Inequality Restrictions, and Non-nested Hypotheses: Exact Simultaneous Tests in Linear Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 335-55, March.
  11. Shiba, Tsunemasa & Tsurumi, Hiroki, 1988. "Bayesian and Non-Bayesian Tests of Independence in Seemingly Unrelated Regressions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 29(2), pages 377-95, May.
  12. Stanley Fischer, 1993. "The Role of Macroeconomic Factors in Growth," NBER Working Papers 4565, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Breusch, T.S. & Pagan, A.R., . "The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics," CORE Discussion Papers RP -412, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  14. Srivastava, V. K. & Dwivedi, T. D., 1979. "Estimation of seemingly unrelated regression equations : A brief survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 15-32, April.
  15. Oberhofer, W & Kmenta, J, 1974. "A General Procedure for Obtaining Maximum Likelihood Estimates in Generalized Regression Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(3), pages 579-90, May.
  16. Harvey, A C & Phillips, G D A, 1980. "Testing for Serial Correlation in Simultaneous Equation Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 747-59, April.
  17. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Kiviet, Jan F., 1996. "Exact tests for structural change in first-order dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 39-68, January.
  18. Dagenais, Marcel G & Dufour, Jean-Marie, 1991. "Invariance, Nonlinear Models, and Asymptotic Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1601-15, November.
  19. Breusch, Trevor S., 1980. "Useful invariance results for generalized regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 327-340, August.
  20. Jean-Marie Dufour & Abdeljelil Farhat & Lucien Gardiol & Lynda Khalaf, 1998. "Simulation-based finite sample normality tests in linear regressions," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 1(Conferenc), pages C154-C173.
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