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Estimating Smooth Structural Change in Cointegration Models

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  • Peter C. B. Phillips

    ()

  • Degui Li

    ()

  • Jiti Gao

    ()

Abstract

This paper studies nonlinear cointegration models in which the structural coefficients may evolve smoothly over time. These time-varying coefficient functions are well-suited to many practical applications and can be estimated conveniently by nonparametric kernel methods. It is shown that the usual asymptotic methods of kernel estimation completely break down in this setting when the functional coefficients are multivariate. The reason for this breakdown is a kernel-induced degeneracy in the weighted signal matrix associated with the nonstationary regressors, a new phenomenon in the kernel regression literature. Some new techniques are developed to address the degeneracy and resolve the asymptotics, using a path-dependent local coordinate transformation to re-orient coordinates and accommodate the degeneracy. The resulting asymptotic theory is fundamentally different from the existing kernel literature, giving two different limit distributions with different convergence rates in the different directions (or combinations) of the (functional) parameter space. Both rates are faster than the usual (√nh) rate for nonlinear models with smoothly changing coefficients and local stationarity. Hence two types of super-consistency apply in nonparametric kernel estimation of time-varying coefficient cointegration models. The higher rate of convergence (n√h) lies in the direction of the nonstationary regressor vector at the local coordinate point. The lower rate (nh) lies in the degenerate directions but is still super-consistent for nonparametric estimators. In addition, local linear methods are used to reduce asymptotic bias and a fully modified kernel regression method is proposed to deal with the general endogenous nonstationary regressor case. Simulations are conducted to explore the finite sample properties of the methods and a practical application is given to examine time varying empirical relationships involving consumption, disposable income, investment and real interest rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics in its series Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers with number 22/13.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2013-22

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Keywords: Cointegration; Endogeneity; Kernel degeneracy; Nonparametric regression; Super-consistency; Time varying coefficients;

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References

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  1. Peter C. B. Phillips & Jun Yu, 2010. "Dating the Timeline of Financial Bubbles during the Subprime Crisis," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1770, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  2. Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2007. "Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(6), pages 1771-1855, November.
  3. Campbell, John Y. & Mankiw, N. Gregory, 1990. "Permanent Income, Current Income, and Consumption," Scholarly Articles 3353762, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  4. Ibragimov, Rustam & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2008. "Regression asymptotics using martingale convergence methods," Scholarly Articles 2624459, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Su, Liangjun & Ullah, Aman, 2008. "Local polynomial estimation of nonparametric simultaneous equations models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 193-218, May.
  6. Athanasopoulos, George & Guillén, Osmani Teixeira de Carvalho & Issler, João Victor & Vahid, Farshid, 2010. "Model selection, estimation and forecasting in VAR models with short-run and long-run restrictions," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 704, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
  7. Robinson, Peter M, 1988. "Root- N-Consistent Semiparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(4), pages 931-54, July.
  8. Whitney K. Newey & James L. Powell, 2003. "Instrumental Variable Estimation of Nonparametric Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1565-1578, 09.
  9. Qi Li & Jeffrey Scott Racine, 2006. "Nonparametric Econometrics: Theory and Practice," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 8355.
  10. Bin Chen & Yongmiao Hong, 2012. "Testing for Smooth Structural Changes in Time Series Models via Nonparametric Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(3), pages 1157-1183, 05.
  11. Terasvirta, Timo & Tjostheim, Dag & Granger, Clive W. J., 2010. "Modelling Nonlinear Economic Time Series," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199587155.
  12. Gao, Jiti, 2007. "Nonlinear time series: semiparametric and nonparametric methods," MPRA Paper 39563, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Sep 2007.
  13. Hall, Robert E, 1978. "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle-Permanent Income Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 971-87, December.
  14. Jiti Gao & Maxwell King, 2011. "A New Test in Parametric Linear Models against Nonparametric Autoregressive Errors," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 20/11, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  15. Joon-Ho Hahm & Douglas G. Steigerwald, 1999. "Consumption Adjustment under Time-Varying Income Uncertainty," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 32-40, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Degui Li & Peter C.B. Phillips & Jiti Gao, 2013. "Uniform Consistency of Nonstationary Kernel-Weighted Sample Covariances for Nonparametric Regression," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1929, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.

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